The Hispanic Role in America
COMPILED BY DR. JUAN M. PEREZ
Library of Congress
1372 Basques arrived in Newfoundland.
1492 Cristóbal Colón discovered America for Spain.
1493 Colón introduced sugar cane in the New World.
1494 January 6. Fray Bernardo Boil celebrated mass in Hispaniola, perhaps the first mass celebrated in America.
June 7. Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between Spain and Portugal, which divided the newly discovered lands between the two countries. Under this treaty, Portugal claimed Brazil.
1499 Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, Alonso de Ojeda, Americo Vespucci, Juan de la Cosa, Alonso Niño and Cristóbal Guerra were sent by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to explore new territories. They went along the coast of Brazil to the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida coast. They also reached the Chesapeake Bay.
1500 Juan de la Cosa drew the first map of America's coastline.
1501 Gaspar Corterreal explored the North American Atlantic coast.
1502 Alberto Cantino drew a map showing Florida's coastline.
1503 European-style architecture was introduced with the construction of the church of San Nicolás de Bari in Hispaniola, present-day Dominican Republic.
1505 The first elementary school was founded in Hispaniola.
1507 German writer Martin Waldseemüller, thinking that it was Americo Vespucci who discovered the new lands in 1492, said that the new regions should be called America.
1508 Juan Ponce de León arrived in the southern part of Puerto Rico and explored it.
• Spaniards built the first sugar mill in the New World in the island of Hispaniola.
1509 August 14. Ponce de León was appointed governor of Puerto Rico.
• Pope Julius II authorized the Catholic Kings of Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella) to administer the church in the New World in exchange for the expenses Spain would incur in the evangelization process.
1510 Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo wrote Las sergas de Esplandián, a continuation of the adventure novel Amadís de Gaula. The novel talked about an island called California, where amazons lived. The Spanish gave this name to what is now the state of California.
• Franciscan missionaries arrived in Puerto Rico.
1511 King Ferdinand granted the Puerto Rican settlement the status of a city and gave it a coat of arms.
• Pope Julius II issued a Papal Bull establishing various dioceses in America.
• The first catholic diocese in the United States was established in Puerto Rico by Pope Julius II. He appointed Alonso Manso as the first bishop.
1512 Ponce de León was granted permission by the king to explore an island called "Bimini", supposedly north of the Bahamas and search for a fabled fountain of youth.
• Dominicans founded the first hospital in the New World in Hispaniola.
1513 April 2. Juan Ponce de León, landed on the Florida coast, just north of Cape Canaveral, on Eastern Sunday (Pascua Florida). He then went south around the Florida peninsula around the Florida Keys and up the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.
• Bishop Alonso, of San Juan, Puerto Rico, founded the first school in the United States.
• The king of Spain issued a royal order by which the natives were to be taught latin to improve their education.
• Antonio de Alaminos, Ponce de León's pilot, discovered the Gulf Stream.
1518 Juan de Grijalva reached the area around Galveston Island, Texas.
Diego Velázquez explored a region of South Carolina.
1519 Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explored the Golf Coast, as far as Texas. A map of his expedition shows Cuba, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico coast. He was the first one to realize that Florida was not an island. He discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River. He entered Mobile Bay (Alabama), which he named "Bahía del Espíritu Santo." He also probably sighted the bay of Corpus Christi, Texas.
1520 Spaniards from Cuba reached the South Carolina coast.
• Francisco de Garay, the governor of Jamaica, sent Diego de Camargo to attempt to establish a settlement near de mouth of the Rio Grande.
• Francisco Gordillo explored the North Atlantic Coast.
1521 Francisco Gordillo and Pedro Quexós reached the North Carolina coast. During their explorations, they took Indians as slaves. Once Spanish authorities found about this, they were reprimanded and ordered the Indians to be set free and returned to their homelands.
• Ponce de León arrived in Charlotte Harbor, in yet another effort to colonize Florida. He had brought with him colonists, missionaries and livestock and many different kinds of seeds. The effort failed.
• Fernando de Magallanes, on a voyage to circumnavigate the world, reached Hawaii and Guam. He died after arriving in the Philippines.
1522 Juan Sebastián de Elcano finished Magallanes' expedition, arriving in Spain on September 6, being the first one to circumnavigate the globe.
1523 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón was named adelantado, in a region north of Florida.
• The first sugar mill in the United States was established in Puerto Rico.
• Gonzalo de Ocampo explored the area near present-day Brownsville, Texas.
1524 Diego Miruelo explored Florida's western coast.
• Gonzalo de Sandoval told in Mexico City a tale of an island called California that was full of riches and inhabited by women only.
1525 Esteban Gómez left the port city of La Coruña, Galicia (Spain) to explore the Atlantic Coast from Florida to Labrador, passing by the mouths of the rivers Connecticut, Hudson and Delaware. On his trek, he reached Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Cod, Long Island, New York Bay and entered the Chesapeake Bay at White Haven, Maryland.
• García Jofre de Loaysa led a seven-ship expedition from La Coruña (Galicia, Spain) to the Hawaiian Islands. They reached the Pacific the following year. Disease and weather took a heavy toll on the expedition. By the time it reached the Moluccas, only one ship was afloat.
• Nuño de Guzmán became the governor of the Panuco-Rio Grande area.
1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, accompanied by Pedro de Quexós as pilot and Dominican Fathers Pedro Estrada, Antonio Montesinos an Antonio de Cervantes sailed with an expedition to colonize the Carolinas. The expedition reached the Chesapeake Bay and Fray Montesinos, celebrated the first mass in Virginia, near Jamestown. One of the ships ran aground near Cape Fear and another had to be built, perhaps the first one built in the United States. The expedition founded a settlement at San Miguel Gualdape, opposite present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. The Spanish called the area Chícora.
• Pánfilo Narváez was granted royal privileges to explore, conquer and settle the territory from Florida to the Rio Grande.
• José de Basconales is believed to have explored Arizona on his trip from Mexico to the Zuni territory.
1527 Alvaro de Saavedra led an expedition to Hawaii and the Philippines, from Zacatula, Mexico.
1528 Pánfilo de Nárvaez led an expedition to Florida. The expedition was destroyed by the weather and hostile natives. He reached Mobile, Alabama. Sancho de Caniedo was sent by governor Nuño de Guzmán to take possession of the Rio Grande region. The attempt failed.
• 1528-1536 The survivors of the Nárvaez expedition to Florida, Hernán Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes, Alonso Castillo and their black slave Estebanico, wandered for 8 years throughout southern U.S. (Texas and New Mexico). They reached Mexico City on July 24, 1536. During their ordeal they had to endure all kinds of things to survive. In one instance, in 1528, Cabeza de Vaca performed a succesful surgical operation on an Indian. This was, perhaps, the first surgery performed in the United States.
1529 Map maker Diego Ribeiro published a map showing very clearly the U.S. Atlantic coast.
1530 Pedro Martyr de Angleria wrote his book, The Decades, on the Spanish explorations of America.
1533 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada discovered Baja California.
1535 Hernán Cortés founded a settlement in Santa Cruz, Baja California.
1536 Cortés crossed the Gulf of California and explored the lower regions of Baja California.
• Cabeza de Vaca and his companions wrote in Mexico City a report of their experiences.
1538 The printing press arrived in Mexico.
• Dominicans in Santo Domingo founded the first university in the New World.
1539 Francisco de Ulloa, a lieutenant of Cortés, explored the Gulf of California and proving that California was not an island.
• The diary of the Franciscan Francisco Preciado, a companion of Ulloa, provides the first printed record of California as applied to that region.
• Fray Marcos de Niza led an expedition to find the fabled seven cities of Cíbola, reaching a region of New Mexico inhabited by the Zuñi Indians. The adobe buildings of the Pueblo Indians glittered in the sun like gold and Fray Niza, seeing this from far away thought that he had found such place.
• Hernando de Soto reached Bahía Honda (Tampa Bay) on June 1, at the head of the largest attempt yet, to conquer and settle Florida. He was a man of great experience having been Francisco Pizarro's military advisor in Peru.
• Juan de Añasco, one of De Soto's lieutenants, founded the settlement of Espíritu Santo, Florida. This was the beginning of Tampa.
• Hernando de Soto and his companions celebrated Christmas in the area of Tallahassee, Florida. This was the first Christmas celebration in the continental U.S.
• 1539-1541 Hernando de Soto explored the regions of Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas and then crossed the Appalachian mountains into Tennessee. Other regions explored by him were Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. The source of the Mississippi river was discovered.
1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado led an expedition of 336 Spaniards, 100 Indians, 552 horses, 600 mules, 5,000 sheep and 500 head of cattle, through Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, and Kansas, some of the territories described by Fray Niza. Coronado sent García López de Cárdenas to explore the northwest, reaching the Grand Canyon, all the while another expedition explored the northeast and another one led by Hernando de Alarcón reached the Colorado river and Yuma, Arizona. Hernando de Alarcón is also possibly to be the first European to have set foot on California soil entering the Gulf of California and ascending the Colorado River. Coronado also reached Río Grande.
• Pedro de Tovar, a lieutenant of Coronado, discovered Hopi country, Arizona.
• García López de Cárdenas, another of Coronado's lieutenant's, was the first European to have sighted the Grand Canyon.
• Hernando de Soto and his men entered Mississipi territory and spent the winter in the area. While there, some Indians were caught stealing from them. Two were killed in the attempt, while the other, De Soto ordered his hands cut off. Some time later, four Spaniards were caught stealing from the Indian village nearby and, De Soto, in a masterful display of equal justice, sentenced two of them to death and confiscated the properties of the others.
1541 Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River. He reached Arkansas. There, a number of pigs left behind by the expedition, became wild. They are the ancestors of the famous razor-back pigs of Nebraska.
• Vázquez de Coronado reached Palo Duro Canyon, Texas. There, on May 29, Fray Juan Padilla celebrated a thanksgiving mass. This was the first Thanksgiving celebration in the United States.
• Domingo de Alarcón, one of the pilots in the Alarcón expedition, re-explored the Gulf of California and chartered its shores on a map. He described California as a peninsula.
1542 Ruy López Villalobos, Juan Gaetano and Gaspar Rico reached the Hawaiian Islands.
• Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado, after the Soto's death in the Mississippi, organised an expedition west hoping to catch up with Coronado. The expedition reached as far as the Brazos River (Texas).
• Fray Juan de Padilla was killed in Kansas by the natives. He is considered to be the first martyr in the United States. A group of Spaniards reached present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico.
• Cabeza de Vaca published in Spain, Naufragios, an account of his adventures. This is the first history of the United States. Cabeza de Vaca can also be considered the first anthropologist and ethnologist.
• 1542-1543 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese in the service of Spain, and Bartolomé Ferrelo explored the West coast, from San Diego to Oregon.
1543 Luis Moscoso was the first European to discover oil in Texas when he used oil seepage near Nacogdoches.
1549 Dominican friars Friars Luis Cáncer, Gregorio de Beteta, Diego de Tolosa, Juan García and Brother Fuentes, arrived in Tampa Bay. Fray Cáncer, Fray Tolosa and Brother Fuentes suffered martyrdom at the hands of the natives, soon after their arrival.
1550-1600 Spanish explorers introduced crops and livestocks from Europe in the United States.
1551 The first university in North America was founded in Mexico City.
1553 A hurricane destroyed a convoy from Mexico to Cuba, near Corpus Christi, Texas, with one thousand people. Few survived.
1554 Captain Angel de Villafana explored the Texas coast in an effort to find the shipwreck of 1553.
1555 Spanish officials in Cuba and Mexico urged the king of Spain to start the colonization of Florida.
1557 Dr. Pedro de Santander, a crown official, urged king Philip II to establish settlements, missions and forts from Pensacola, Florida, to Port Royal, South Carolina.
1558 Guido de los Bazares was sent from Mexico to find a good place in Florida to establish a settlement. He arrived at the Bay of Mobile (Alabama), which he named Filipina Bay in honor of his king, Philip II. On the opposite shore, the expedition reached the Tensaw River and Montrose, in Baldwin County, Alabama
1559 Tristán de Luna arrived at Santa Rosa Island, Pensacola Bay, Florida, and founded a settlement, which ended up in failure soon thereafter. He also reached Nanipacana de la Santa Cruz, near Clairborne, and Mobile Bay, Alabama.
1560 Mateo del Saúz, Fray Domingo de la Anunciación and Fray Domingo Salazar, members of Luna's expedition, navigated the Choosa River up the area of Talladega.
• Fray Pedro Feria, with another group of Luna's expedition, went up the Escambia River. Luna later established a mission in Santa Cruz de Nanicapan (Clairborne).
1561 Angel Villafañe, Antonio Velázquez, Alonso González de Arroche and Juan Torres, reached the Virginia coast. They continued south to North Carolina and to Santa Elena (Parris Island), South Carolina.
1562 Diego Gutiérrez published a map where California appeared for the first time.
1563 Tomás Terrenot, Spanish ambassador in France, informed Philip II that both the English and the French had lent their support to an expedition of French Huguenots to Florida. He warned of the possible threat this could pose to Spanish shipping in the area.
1564 Miguel López de Legazpi and Fray Andrés de Urdaneta led an expedition to find a commercial route from Mexico to the Philippines. Legazpi founded the city of Manila.
• Diego de Mazariegos, governor of Cuba, sent captain Hernán Manrique to find the place where the French had established a settlement and fort. Manrique searched the bays and inlets north of Cape Canaveral. He found Charlesfort at Port Royal, which had already been abandoned by the French.
• Spaniards introduced grapes in California.
• Between 1559 and 1564, Spain spent over two hundred thousand gold pesos on her various attempts to colonize Florida.
1565 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in the United States.
• Fray Martín Francisco López de Mendoza Grajales, founded the first Catholic parish in the United States. With the founding of the city, the Spanish system of local government (Cabildo) was introduced in the continental U.S. The cabildo was an elected town council, with an elected mayor (Alcalde). Thus, when St, Augustine conducted the first elections for the cabildo, they were the first democratic elections held in the continental U.S. The principle of local rights goes back to the Middle Ages in Spain.
• Menéndez de Avilés started construction of a road linking St. Augustine with the San Mateo Fort, near Jacksonville. This was the first road built in the United States.
• Menéndez de Avilés established forts at Santa Elena, South Carolina, Cape Canaveral, Tequesta (Miami), Calus (Charlotte Harbor) and Tocobaga (Tampa).
1566 Jesuits founded a mission in Florida. Their first in the country.
Menéndez de Avilés established San Felipe Fort on Parris Island, South Carolina.
Juan Pardo and Hernando Boyano, companions of Menéndez de Avilés, led another group through what is now Polk County, North Carolina. A fort was built near the mouth of the Wateree River. Pardo continued eastward to Guatari, where Fray Sebastián Moreno founded a mission. Meanwhile, Boyano headed westward to the Little Tennessee River, in present-day Jackson County.
Pardo and Boyano led another group to Guimae in present-day Orangeburg County, South Carolina. During their explorations during 1566 and 1567, they travelled through what are now North Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.
Martín de Argüelles was born in St. Augustine. He was the first "American" of whom documented proof exists.
• Fray Pedro Martínez arrived at Cumberland Island (Georgia). He was killed by the natives as soon as he got ashore. Later the Spanish built a fort.
• Spaniards from St. Augustine established a settlement on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia.
1567 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés became governor of Cuba and Florida
Jesuits founded a mission to minister to the Tequesta Indians, near present-day Miami.
• Jesuits founded the San Carlos Mission on Estero Island, on the Florida Keys. The missionaries assigned to it were Fray Juan Rangel and Fray Francisco de Villareal. A fort had been built the previous year and was under the command of Francisco de Reinosa.
1568 Alvaro de Mendaña and Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa discovered the Solomon Islands.
1569 Jesuit Brother Agustín Báez wrote a grammar of the Güale language spoken by the natives in the area of Georgia and South Carolina. This may very well be the first book published in the United States.
1570 Jesuits founded a mission in the Chesapeake Bay. Jesuits settled at Axacan, near Jamestown. Five Jesuits were killed by the natives in Virginia.
1573 Pedro Menéndez Márquez explored the Chesapeake Bay. By royal orders, nine Franciscans arrived in Florida. Their missionary work would be extended to Georgia and the Carolinas.
1576 Natives destroyed the Fort of Santa Elena, South Carolina. Menéndez Márquez rebuilt it the following year and renamed it San Marcos. It was abandoned in 1587. Natives revolted at Fort San Felipe, South Carolina.
1577 The natives of St. Augustine revolted.
1578 Another Indian rebellion in the vicinity of Santa Elena, South Carolina. The Spanish caught the French instigators and executed them.
1579 The infamous pirate Francis Drake raided Spanish shipping in the Pacific. French pirate Nicholas Estrozi was captured in Georgia by the Spanish. Luis the Carbajal founded the kingdom of Nuevo León, which comprised much of what is present-day Texas. Spaniards introduced oranges in Florida.
1580 Spanish defeated French forces in Florida.
1581 Captain Francisco Chamuscado led an expedition from Mexico to Cíbola, New Mexico, composed of 10 soldiers, 19 Christian Indians and 3 Franciscans, along with 90 horses, 600 cows, pigs and sheep.
• The Franciscan missionary Fray Agustín Rodríguez accompanied an expedition to Texas, hoping to preach the gospel there. The expedition reached the area of the Big Bend and Fray Agustín is believed to have given the actual name of the region, calling it "New Mexico of Santa Fe of San Francisco."
• Friars Agustín Rodríguez, Francisco López and Juan de Santamaria, accompanied by Chamuscado, founded the Mission of San Bartolomé, near Bernalillo, New Mexico. They led a missionary effort as far as Taos, Acoma and Zuñí. Soon afterwards the three friars were martyred.
1582 Antonio de Espejo led an expedition to New Mexico. He crossed the Río Grande near Presidio, Texas, and called the river El Río del Norte. He continued to Arizona, to Zuñi territory and up the Río Grande Valley. In one year he is believed to have covered four thousand miles.
1583 On his way back to Mexico, Espejo followed the Pecos River, Texas, and through present-day Fort Davis and Marfa.
1585 Francisco de Galí arrived in San Francisco Bay, from his voyage to the Philippines. He explored the California coast down to Acapulco.
1586 England attempted to establish a settlement in the Chesapeake Bay. Sir Walter Raleigh established a colony on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, which soon dissappeared. The English pirate Francis Drake attacked St. Augustine burning it to the ground.
1587 The map of Richard Hakluyt showed the regions of Kansas and New Mexico. Pedro de Unamunu was sent by the viceroy of New Spain, Pedro Moya de Contreras, on an expedition to find a good harbor for the Philippine galleons. He discovered a bay which he called Puerto de San Lucas, with all probability present-day Bay of Monterey, California.
1588 Fray Alonso Escobedo, in Florida, wrote the poem "La Florida", perhaps the first poem written in the United States. Florida governor Pedro Menéndez Marqués accompanied by Juan Menéndez Marqués, Juan Lara and Vicente González led an expedition to the Chesapeake Bay looking for suspected English settlements there (Roanoke Island). Juan Menéndez wrote a detailed description of the area.
1590 The lieutenant governor of Nuevo León, Gaspar Castaño de Sosa, led an expedition north, reaching the Río Grande and Texas. Sosa is believed to be the first one to discover a wagon trail between the Pecos River and New Mexico.
1592 Juan de Fuca led an expedition to the Pacific North coast and explored the strait that now bears his name.
1593 Fray Miguel de Auñón and lay-brother Antonio de Badajoz were martyred in St. Catherine's Island (Santa Catalina), Georgia. A punitive expedition, led by Alonso Díaz de Badajoz, was sent to the region. As punishment, Florida governor Gonzalo Méndez Canzo, issued and order to enslave the natives, however, a royal decree in 1600 nullified that order and set the Indians free. Fray Pedro Corpa arrived at Tolomato Mission, in McIntosh Co., Georgia, from where he directed missionary work to nearby native settlements. Franciscans Pedro Fernández de Chozas, Baltasar López and Francisco Pareja arrived on Cumberland Island (Georgia). Friars Pedro Ruiz and and Pedro de Vermejo were sent to what is now Camden Co., Georgia.
1594 Francisco Leyba de Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez de Humaña reached Kansas territory. They were later killed by Indians. María Viscente married Vicente Solana in St. Augustine. They founded the first "American family" of whom documented proof exists.
1595 Captains Francisco Leyva Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez Omaña, led an expedition north to subdue rebellious tribes. They went up to New Mexico and Kansas. The expedition was a complete failure, with only few survivors. Sebastián Rodríguez Cermellón left the Philippines to find a good port in America's northern coast. He arrived at San Francisco, in Drake's Bay.
1596-1597 Sebastián Vizcaíno explored the California coast and the Sea of Cortes. Gaspar Salas and two Franciscans, Pedro Chozas and Francisco Berascola, led an expedition to explore the area of Tama, Georgia. Indian revolt in the area of the Tolomato Mission (McIntosh, Co., Georgia) led by the Indian chief Juanillo. Fray Corpa was killed along with many others. The only survivor was Fray Francisco Dávila, who had been enslaved at Tufina, near Altamaha River.
1598 Juan de Oñate explored the area north of the Rio Grande, reaching Missouri and Nebraska. He founded San Gabriel de los Españoles, today Chamita, New Mexico. He became New Mexico's first governor, ruling until 1608. Oñate was at the head of a great expedition composed of 200 soldiers and colonists and 7,000 head of livestock (cows, horses, sheep, pigs, etc) and 83 three wagons with provisions, ammunition and many different kinds of seeds. On April 30, near El Paso, a mass of Thanksgiving was celebrated followed by a great banquet. This was perhaps the first Thanksgiving dinner in the United States. In the banks of the Río Grande (near El Paso) Oñate's expedition rested in the area while watching a play written by captain Marcos Farfán de los Godos. This was the first play performed in the United States. Oñate founded the town of San Juan de los Caballeros, New Mexico. Captain Juan de Zaldívar was killed at Acoma, New Mexico.
• Fray Alonso de Lugo founded the mission of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, near Sia Pueblo, New Mexico.
• Fray Cristóbal de Salazar founded the Nambé Mission, New Mexico.
• Fray Francisco de Zamora founded the mission of San Lorenzo de los Picuries in the Taos region of New Mexico.
1599 Vicente de Zaldívar, brother of Juan de Zaldívar, led a punitive expedition against the natives of Acoma, New Mexico. Oñate dealt severily with them, cutting the right foot of 24 Indian captives. Franciscan missionaries established several missions in New Mexico. Oñate led an expedition east to west through Arizona searching for the "South Sea."
1600 Franciscan missionaries founded missions in Arizona. Pedro de Vergara returned to San Gabriel, New Mexico, with more colonists, missionaries and supplies. Vicente de Zaldívar reached Denver, Colorado. Spanish colonists in the Río Grande Valley introduced the plow and beasts of burden to the Pueblo Indians.
1601 Juan de Oñate left San Gabriel at the head of an expedition to explore more of New Mexico. He also reached Kansas, Nebraska and Missouri. He had with him seventy soldiers, two missionaries, supplies and seven hundred horses and mules.
1602 Philip II ordered the exploration of the Northern Pacific Coast.
Sebastián Vizcaíno arrived at San Diego Bay, California, and, later, Monterey Bay, which he named that way in honor of the Viceroy of Mexico Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, count of Monterey.
Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, one of the two cosmographers of the expedition, wrote an account of the experience. Royal envoy, Fernando Valdés, conducted hearings in St. Augustine as the whether or not move the settlement to another location. Eighteen men were chosen from the population to serve on the jury. These proceedings were the first court hearings held in the continental U.S.
1603 Juan Martín de Aguilar explored the coast of Alaska.
• Sebastián Vizcaíno published charts which showed the Port of Monterey and San Francisco Bay.
• The Mission of Santo Domingo de Talaxe was built in present-day Glynn Co., Georgia.
• Florida governor, Gonzalo Méndez Canzo, built a mission on Cumberland Island, Georgia, called San Pedro de Mocamo.
1604 Oñate led an expedition from San Gabriel to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. He went through Arizona, the Colorado River, Yuma and, finally, he reached the Gulf of California.
• Oñate was the first European to follow the Colorado River to its mouth.
1605 Fray Cristóbal Quiñones founded the missions of San Francisco, Santa Ana, San Felipe and Santo Domingo, New Mexico.
• Oñate founded Santa Fe, New Mexico, as "La Ciudad Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco".
• Franciscans restored the Mission of the Island of Amelia, Florida.
• Percival de Quinanes, a music teacher, arrived in New Mexico. He was the first European music teacher in the Southwest.
1606 Bishop Juan Cabezas Altamirano of Santiago, Cuba, went to Florida where he spent one year baptizing, confirming over two thousand natives and almost four hundred Spaniards. He also ordained twenty one new priests, some of whom had already been born in Florida and educated at the Franciscan seminary in St. Augustine.
• Enrico Martínez published in thirty-two charts the observations made by Vizcaíno during his exploration of the California coast.
1607 Friars Francisco Pareja and Alonso Peñaranda, converted thousands of Apalache Indians in Tallahassee, Florida.
• Jamestown was founded by English colonists in Virginia.
1608 Fray Lázaro Jiménez arrived in Spain and told crown officials of the many converts in New Mexico. The king, then, made it a royal province.
1609 Pedro de Peralta was appointed governor of New Mexico.
• By this year there were eight thousand native Christians in the area of New Mexico.
• Fray Cristóbal Quiñones taught the Indians of the mission of San Felipe to sing and to play musical instruments.
• Francisco Fernández Ecija led an expedition to the Chesapeake Bay to report on the English settlement of Jamestown.
1610 A member of Oñate's expedition, Captain Gaspar Pérez de Villagra, wrote an epic poem about the exploration of what is now New Mexico, La conquista de la Nueva Méjico.
• Governor Pedro de Peralta started construction of the city of Santa Fe. Santa Fe became the new capital of New Mexico, replacing San Gabriel. The Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, New Mexico, was built. This is the oldest government building in the United States.
• Colonists built the first irrigation canals and irrigation systems in Santa Fe.
The Mission of San Miguel, New Mexico, was built. Its church is the oldest religious building still in use today. One of its bells was cast in 1356 and it also holds two Italian paintings from 1287.
1612 More Franciscan missionaries arrived in Florida and the province was enlarged to also include Georgia and the Carolinas.
• Fray Francisco Pareja wrote two books in the Timucuana language.
• Two Dutch ships arrived in the island of Manhattan.
1613 The tobacco plant was brought to Florida.
1615 By this year there were twenty missions in Florida.
1616 Four missions were established in Georgia.
• The Mission of Santa Clara de Tupiqui (Florida) was built.
1617 More missions were established in New Mexico: Pecos, Santa Cruz, San Buenaventura and San Ildefonso.
1618 New Mexico had by now eleven missions and fourteen thousand Christian Indians. In Florida the number was fifty missions and sixteen thousand Christian Indians.
1619 The first black slaves arrived to be sold in the English settlement of Jamestown, Virginia.
1620 The first shrine in the United States was established and dedicated to Our Lady of the Milk and of Happy Delivery at the Mission of Nombre de Dios, near St. Augustine.
• Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, the cosmographer on Vizcaíno's expedition, wrote a book about that experience.
• English pilgrims arrived at Plymouth, Massachussets.
1621-1629 Sister María de Agreda, a Poor Clare nun in Spain, made miraculous visits to the Jumano Indians of Texas, according to the legend. During this period, the Jumano Indians related stories, to missionaries in Santa Fe, of a "woman in blue" who appeared to them and converted them to Christianity. Friars Diego López and Juan Salas left Santa Fe for Jumano territory in Texas. When they arrived at the settlement, they were received by a great cross adorned with flowers and by more Jumanos asking to be baptized.
1622 The Spanish galleons, Nuestra Señora de Atocha and Santa Margarita, sank near Cayo Hueso, Florida.
• Kaspar Van Baerle published a map of the world still showing California as an island.
1624 French corsairs defeated Spanish forces in the Caribbean islands of Guadalupe and Martinique.
• The English defeated the Spanish forces defending San Cristóbal (St. Kitts)
• Spanish forces explored Georgia and Carolina for rumored English settlements in those areas.
• The Dutch bought form the Manhattan Indians the island of the same name.
1626 Fray Alonso de Benavídes established three more missions among the Pyres Indians of New Mexico.
• Fray Jerónimo Zárate, Francisco Porras and Cristóbal Quirós, founded missions for the Hopi, Querez and Jemez Indians of New Mexico.
1627 Fray Alonso de Benavídes founded the Mission of the Assumption, New Mexico.
• Dutch pirates captured Spanish ships near Cuba.
1628 English pirates attacked and occupied the Caribbean Islands of Nevis and Barbados.
• The Dutch attacked a Spanish fleet as it left Cuba.
• Fray Juan Ramírez founded the Mission of San Esteban Rey on the Rock of Acoma.
1629 Several more missions were founded in New Mexico and Arizona.
Some fifty Jumano Indians from Texas arrived at the mission of San Antonio at Isleta, New Mexico, telling the missionaries there that the "woman in blue" asked them to look for the missionaries.
• Friars Roque de Figueredo, Agustín de Cuéllar and Francisco de la Madre de Dios founded a mission at Cibola, called Hawikuh by the natives, in New Mexico.
Fray Francisco de Acevedo founded the missions of the Inmaculada Concepción, San Miguel de Tajique and San Gregorio de Abó, New Mexico.
• Franciscans Francisco Porras, Andrés Gutiérrez and Cristóbal de la Concepción founded the San Bernardino Mission, San Francisco de Oraibi, San Buenaventura de Mishongnovi San Bartolomé de Shongopovi and Kisakobi, in Arizona.
• Apaches destroyed the Spanish pueblo of Polvareda, New Mexico.
• Fray Juan Ramírez began preaching Christianity to the Indians of Acoma, New Mexico.
1630 By this year there were now twenty five missions and sixty thousand Christian Indians in New Mexico.
1632 Fray Juan de Salas visited the Jumanos of Texas, for a second time.
• Friars Francisco de Letrado and Martín de Arvide were martyred by the natives in New Mexico.
• New Mexico Governor, Francisco de la Mora Ceballos sent a punitive expedition, under the command of Tomás de Albizu, as a reprisal for the killings of Letrado and Arvide.
1633 In this year construction was began on the Royal Road connecting St. Augustine and St. Mark, Florida. Twenty one missions were founded along this road.
• Capt. Alonso de Vaca explored again the territory of Gran Quivira (Kansas).
Fray Francisco Porras was poisoned by Indians in Arizona. It is believed that his companions were killed in the same fashion.
1634 Spain ceded Curaçao to Holland.
1635 Spain lost the Virgin Islands.
• Fray Gregorio Mabilla translated a book on Christian doctrine into the Timucuana language of Florida. He also wrote a book on how best to Christianize the natives.
1637 The Spanish mounted a succesfull campaign to subdue the natives of west Florida.
1638 Jacinto García de Sepúlveda led an expedition to the area of Brownsville, Texas, looking for a supposed Dutch settlement there.
1639 Defenses in Puerto Rico were reinforced to protect against pirate attacks in the Caribbean.
• Admiral Andrés Matías de Paz led an expedition to explore the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico, from Pensacola to the mouth of the Mississippi.
1640 Dutch pirates attacked Puerto Rico, Trinidad and other Caribbean islands.
• The Spanish possessions in the region were to endure more of these attacks throughout the decade.
• French pirate Pierre LeGrand captured the flag ship of a Spanish convoy near Florida.
1641 Spanish forces in the Caribbean attacked and recaptured several islands from the French.
• A strong missionary effort was began in the Apalache region of Florida.
1642 The first library in Puerto Rico was founded at the convent of San Francisco.
1644 By this year there were thirty five missions in Sonora, Mexico, and thirty thousand Christian Indians. These missions later served for the colonization and christianization of Arizona.
• Juan de Archuleta led an expedition to Colorado. This was the first exploration of Colorado.
1646 England attacked and took over the Bahamas after defeating the Spanish there.
1647 The natives of the Apalache region rose in revolt, destroying seven missions and killing the deputy governor and his family.
1650 Captain Diego del Castillo and Hernán Martín led an expedition from New Mexico to North Central Texas. They reached the Nueces River (Concho).
1653 Captain Alonso de León led an expedition to explore the Río Grande region of Texas.
1654 Captain Diego de Guadalajara reached the Indians along the Nueces River and traded buffalo skins with them.
1655 Franciscans founded more missions in Florida and Georgia.
• By this year, in Southwest Georgia, there were nine missions dependent on the presidio and the mission of San Luis, Florida: San Lorenzo de Apalache, San Francisco de Apalache, Concepción de Apalache, San José de Apalache, San Juan de Apalache, San Cosme y San Damián, San Luis de Apalache and San Martín de Apalache.
1656 Native revolt in Texas. The Spanish were able to quail it after executing some of the leaders.
• The Council of the Indies, in Seville, ordered the arrest of Florida governor, Diego Rebolledo, for mistreating the Indians.
• The English took over Jamaica after defeating the Spanish. The island would later become a strategic point for smuggling and continued English attacks on Spanish ships in the Caribbean.
1658 Sephardim Jews (Jews of Iberian origin), arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. There they built what is now the oldest synagogue in the United States (Touro Synagogue). The were the first Spanish-speaking community in the northeast.
1659 Spaniards built a church and a monastery in what is now El Paso, Texas. King Philip IV of Spain gave the Keresan Indians of Acoma, New Mexico, a land grant of 45,000 hectares (which they still posses to this day). This grant was recognized by the United States in 1858 and later ratified by Abraham Lincoln in 1863, who upon receiving the seven governors of the Seven Cities, renewed a Spanish tradition, by giving each of the governors a staff of authority (vara de justicia) with a silver handle.
1660 Apaches and Comanches crossed the Río Grande and attacked settlements in Monterey, Saltillo and Casas Grandes, Mexico.
1661 Diego Dionisio Peñalosa Briceño was appointed governor and captain-general of New Mexico.
1662 Diego Peñalosa, governor of New Mexico, sent away an expedition that reached Nebraska. There the Spanish met with seventy Indian chiefs of the region.
1663 One hundred colonists from northern Mexico, which had been attacked by Comanches, crossed the Río Grande near Eagle Pass and battled them killing many and making prisonners of others, which were sent to work in the silver mines of Zacatecas.
• Tomás Menéndez Márquez inherited his father's ranch in central Florida and made it the largest and more productive ranches of its day.
1664 Governor Peñalosa, of New Mexico, explored the region around the Río Grande and the Mississippi River.
1665 The Comanches crossed the Río Grande again and raided villages in northern Mexico. The Spaniards, with the support of the Boboles Indians of Coahuila, organized a counterattack and defeated them.
1668 The city of St. Augustine was laid to waste by the English pirate John Davis.
Spaniards built the Church of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de El Paso, Texas.
1669 Peter Heylyn published a four-volume work on geography in which he described California as an island. As a result of an epidemic in Arizona and New Mexico, caused by severe drought, encouraged the Comanches of Mescalero to raid the villages of Christian Indians.
1670 Spain and England signed the Treaty of Madrid by which both powers promised the territorial integrity of each other's possessions in the New World.
Fray Pedro de Avila y Ayala was martyred in New Mexico.
1672 Spaniards started construction of the Castle of San Marcos in St. Augustine, Florida.
Two more missions were founded in the Apalache region, Florida.
1674 Gabriel de Vara y Calderón, bishop of Cuba, went to Florida for a ten-month stay to visit the missions. He is believed to have confirmed as many as 13,000 Indians.
• More missions were founded in Florida.
• Fray Manuel de la Cruz crossed into Texas, between Eagle Pass and Del Río, searching for Guyguechales Indians and went through the present Texas counties of Maverick, Kinney and Valverde. He returned to Mexico with many of those Indians.
1675 Seven more missions were founded in Florida. By this year, the number of Franciscan missions in Florida and Georgia was sixty six.
• Franciscans established a settlement in Amelia Island, Florida.
• Lieutenant Fernando del Bosque, Fray Juan Larios and Fray Dionisio de San Buenaventura led an expedition into Texas to do missionary work there.
1676 Fray Francisco de Ayeta returned to New Mexico, from Mexico, with fifty soldiers, one thousand horses and many provisions.
1678 Construction began on the San Marcos de Apalache Fort under the direction of Artillery Captain Enrique Primo de Rivera.
1679 Up to this year, Spain spent one million gold pesos to support the missions and settlements in New Mexico.
• Fray Juan Ocón was prevented by the natives from establishing a mission at Sabcola, in the Chattahooche River. This would have served the dual purpose of christianizing Indians and stopping the advancement of English explorers.
1680 Pueblo Indian uprising in New Mexico. In the city of Santa Fe, the Indian killed four hundred men, women and children and twenty one missionaries.
The three missionaries in the Mission of Santo Domingo, Francisco Antonio Lorenzana, Juan de Talabán and José Montes de Oca, were killed during the Pueblo rebellion.
• Friars José de Espeleta, José de Trujillo, José Figueroa and Agustín de Santa María were killed in Tusayan, Arizona, during the Pueblo rebellion.
By this year there were eighty thousand Christian Indians, forty six villages, thirty Franciscan monasteries and one hundred twenty missionaries in New Mexico.
• The Mission of Corpus Christi de la Isleta, Texas, was founded by retreating Spanish from the Indian revolt in New Mexico.
• The English attacked the missions in the islands of Jekyll, Sapelo, San Simón and Santa Catalina (St. Catherine's), Georgia.
• A presidio was built by Capt. Francisco Fuentes in San Juan de Zapala, in Sapelo Island (Georgia), when the Spanish withdrew from Catherine's Island.
• The mission of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Tama was founded to minister to the Tamali Indians of Georgia.
• Between 1609 and 1680, Spain spent 1,000,000 pesos maintaining the missions.
1681 Spaniards built an irrigation system at Isleta Mission, near El Paso, which is still functional today.
1682 Spaniards and Christian natives who had survived the Pueblo Indian revolt, founded a settlement near El Paso.
• Diego de Peñalosa, the former Spanish governor of New Mexico, travelled to France to meet with Robert Cavalier Sieur de La Salle, the pirate Grammont and others, to plan the overthrow of Spain from the northern area of Mexico and Texas. He proposed the construction of a fort at the mouth of the Río Grande.
• A combined force of French and English pirates attacked the San Marcos de Apalache Fort. A second fort was commissioned by Florida governor Juan Márquez de Cabrera and built under the direction of Juan de Siscara.
• Antonio Otermín and Fray Francisco Ayeta founded the Texas missions of San Antonio de la Isleta del Sur, San Francisco del Socorro del Sur, San Antonio de Senecú and San Lorenzo del Real.
1683 Friars Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and Nicolás López, explored the region of the Nueces River, Texas.
• Six additional missions were founded in Texas: San Antonio de los Puliques, San Francisco de los Julimes, Santa María la Redonda, San Pedro de Alcántara, Apóstol Santiago and San Cristóbal.
• Pirate raids destroyed the Spanish missions of St. Catherine Island and Jekyll, Georgia.
• English pirates attacked St. Augustine.
1684 Fray Juan Domínguez de Mendoza founded the Mission of San Fernando de los Julimes, Texas.
• English pirate attacks on Jekyll Island, Georgia. The Spanish abandoned the island in the early 1700's.
1685 Martín Echegaray occupied Espíritu Santo Bay (Matagorda), Texas. This was part of an overall Spanish strategy to forestall any French encroachments in the Gulf of Mexico area.
1686 Alonso de León explored Texas. He led five expeditions to search for a French fort on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
• Because of the constant English raids on the missions of Florida and Georgia, Florida governor Juan Marqués Cabrera, organized a punitive expedition under Tomás de León against Port Royal, South Carolina, destroying the English settlement there. The missions and forts at Tolomato and Espogache (Georgia) were abandoned by the Spanish.
• Fort San Carlos was built near Fernadina Beach, Florida.
1687 Jesuit Frs. Eusebio Francisco Kino, Antonio Salvatierra and others founded Dolores Mission along the bank of the San Miguel River, in northern Mexico. This mission would become a base of operations from which Fray Kino would launch the founding of more missions in the region. From 1687 to 1711, Kino preached Christianity to the Indians and it is believed he baptized 48,000 people. He founded or helped to found 29 missions and 73 Visitas (missionary chapels). 8 of those missions were in Arizona.
• Frs. Kino and Salvatierra founded the mission of San Gabriel de Guevavi, Arizona.
• The first African-American slaves escaping the plantations of South Carolina, arrived in St. Augustine. Plantation owners asked the Spanish to return them, the Spanish authorities replied that they had converted to Catholicism and, therefore, they were free under Spanish law. They started a settlement. This was perhaps the first town of free African-Americans in the United States.
1688 Domingo Jironza de Cruzate, led an expedition from El Paso to recapture Santa Fe and, even though, the Spaniards fought a battle against the rebellious Pueblo Indians, causing them six hundred dead, the expedition returned to El Paso, for fear of encountering a larger force of Indians.
• English pirate Robert Searles attacked St. Augustine.
1689 Alonso de León and Fray Damián Massanet led a strong armed force to explore the coast of the Gulf of Mexico by land. Alonso de León suggested to the King that Spain occupy this area of Texas.
• Sia was the scene of the bloodiest battle of the Pueblo revolt where 600 Indians died and many were made prisoner.
• A military fort was built in Coweta, near Columbus, Georgia, under the direction of Capt. José Primo de Rivera.
1690 Alonso de León and Franciscans Damián Massanet, Miguel Fontcuberta, Francisco Casañas and Antonio Bordoy, led an expedition to the Neches River, Texas. They founded a village and two missions, San Francisco de los Tejas and Santa María. Alonso de León brought livestock with him to San Francisco de los Tejas. This was the beginning of the cattle industry in east Texas.
1691 Spain made Texas a province and Domingo Terán de los Ríos was appointed as the first governor. He and Fray Massanet organized the colonization of Texas and founded eight missions there.
• Diego de Vargas Zapata Luján y Ponce de León became governor of New Mexico and he began the process of reconquering the territory. He also began the reconstruction of Santa Fe.
1693 Governor Vargas returned to New Mexico, from Mexico, bringing with him soldiers, colonists, livestock and missionaries for the recolonization of the region. The King of Spain, Charles III, issued an edict by which all runaway slaves were to given their liberty. This encouraged runaway slaves from the British colonies to Spanish Florida.
• The scientist Carlos de Siguenza y Góngora accompanied Admiral Andrés de Pez on a scientific expedition to the southeastern United States. He published the findings in: Descripción de la bahía de Santa María de Galve (antes Penzacola), de la Movila o Mississippi, en la costa septentrional del seno mejicano. He also published a history of Texas.
1694 Friars Francisco Farfán and Antonio Moreno led a group of sixty one families in the founding of the village of Santa Cruz (La Cañada), as "La Villa Nueva de Santa Cruz de los Españoles Mexicanos del Rey Nuestro Señor Carlos Segundo" [although it was always referred to as "La Villa Nueva de Santa Cruz de la Cañada"] north of present-day Santa Fe.
• Fr. Eusebio Kino expanded the colonization of southern Arizona, reaching as far as the Gila and Colorado Rivers. He founded the Mission of Tucson and the Visita of San Javier del Bac. Two other missions were founded, San Cayetano de las Calabazas and San José de Tumacacori.
• Governor Diego de Vargas accompanied by Fray Juan de Alpuente reached Colorado.
1696 A new native rebellion in New Mexico was succesfully quelled by governor Vargas.
• Juan Ulibarri led an expedition to explore southern Colorado and the Arkansas and the Animas Rivers.
1697 After the rebellion, the Viceroy of Mexico sent many provisions to the colonists in New Mexico, such as, corn, blankets, sheep, cows, bulls, etc.
1698 Andrés de Arriola landed at the Bay of Pensacola and began construction of the Fort of San Carlos. The city of Santa María de Pensacola was established nearby.
1699 Preacher Cotton Mather wrote the first book published in Spanish in the United States, La religión pura en doze palabras fieles, dignas de ser recibidas de todos.
• Frs. Eusebio Kino and Adan Gil and Capts. Juan M. Manje and Diego Carrasco reached the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers.
1700 Construction began on the mission of San Javier del Bac, in Tucson.
The mission of San Francisco Solano was founded near de San Juan Bautista Mission, Texas.
1702 The Mission of Santa Fe, in Florida, was destroyed by English settlers from South Carolina
• An English fleet under Carolina governor, James Moore, attacked St.Augustine, setting
1703 Three more missions were founded near the border of the Río Grande, Texas.
• The Mission of San José de Ocuia, Florida, was destroyed by Apalache Indians.
1704 James Moore attacked the Apalache area in the Tallahassee region, destroying fourteen missions and twenty-four settlements, committing all kinds of atrocities. Franciscan missionaries were tortured and killed. Fray Juan de Parga was beheaded. Twelve Christian Indians were taken prisoners to be sold as slaves in South Carolina. After the English attacks, the San Marcos de Apalache Fort felt into disuse.
1705 Silver mines near Phoenix and Tucson were exploited at the suggestion of Fr. Kino.
1706 Governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés with fifty families from Santa Fe, founded the city of Albuquerque as "La Villa de San Francisco de Alburquerque" in honor of the Duke of Alburquerque, then Viceroy of New Spain (Mexico).
The Mission of Los Padillos was founded nearby.
• Commander Roque Madrid led an expedition to subdue the native tribes in Northern Arizona.
• Capt. Juan de Uribarri led an expedition to northeast New Mexico towards the upper Arkansas river to subdue some Pueblo Indians.
• Uribarri led another expedition from Santa Fe into Kansas to prevent French encroachment from Canada. Uribarri took possession of Colorado in the name of the King of Spain, Philip V. He founded the settlement of Santo Domingo de El Cuartelejo.
1707 James Moore destroyed Pensacola. Diego Ramón was sent on a punitive expedition against the Ranchería Grande Indians in Texas.
1709 Fray Antonio Olivares led an expedition to explore more Texas and New Mexico territories. Fray Isidro Félix de Espinosa led a missionary expedition to Texas. He arrived at the present site of San Antonio and named the springs there, San Pedro Springs. New Mexico's governor, Antonio Valverde, led a military expedition to Kansas for the purpose of preventing French encroachment.
1710 The Mission of St.Augustine, in Isleta, New Mexico, was founded. The Governor of New Mexico, José Chacón, Marquis of Peñuelas, organized a succesful campaign against the Navajos, for their constant hostility towards Christian Indians in the regions of Zuñi and Acoma.
1711 Fr. Eusebio Kino died.
1712 Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, new governor of New Mexico, reinforced the defenses of the city of Albuquerque.
1714 Friars Gregorio Osorio, José Arransegui, Andrés Ramírez and Juan A. García, led and expedition north of the Río Grande and founded the towns and missions of San José de los Puliques, San Antonio and San Cristóbal.
1715 A hurricane sank ten Spanish galleons off the Florida Coast. Native revolt in South Carolina and Georgia against the English. The Indians were defeated and many of them sought refuge in Florida. The mission-pueblo of El Señor San José was founded near Presidio, Texas. Juan Antonio Trasauina Retis founded an Indian pueblo at La Junta de los Rios, present-day Presidio, Texas, and named it San Cristóbal. It was abandoned after de Presidio del Norte was establshied in 1760.
1716 Texas was separated from Coahuila and made a separate Mexican province. Captain Domingo Ramón led an expedition to Northern Texas, with colonists, eleven Franciscans, agricultural tools, seeds and cattle. They arrived at the Neches River and the following new missions were founded: Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hanai, Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de los Ais, Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de los Tejas, San José de los Nazonis, San Miguel de Linares de los Adaes and Nuestra Señora de los Nacogdoches. The mission of San Francisco de los Neches was founded in Texas. Los Lunas Mission was founded south of Albuquerque, New Mexico.
1718 Fray Antonio de San Buenaventura Olivares advised Spanish authorities in Mexico about establishing a fort between Río Grande and the Neches area. His plan was approved and soon thereafter he and Martín de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila, arrived at San Antonio River and construction began immediately on the Fort San Fernando de Bejar and on the Mission of San Antonio de Valero, best known as the Alamo. Texas governor, Martín de Alarcón, founded the town of Villa San Antonio de Bexar, present-day San Antonio, Texas. Martín de Alarcón established the Indian pueblo of San Francisco de Valero.
1719 French forces from Louisiana attacked Pensacola, Florida, and burned it to the ground. New Mexico Governor Antonio Valverde led a punitive expedition into Colorado against the Ute and Comanche Indians.
1720 Fray Margil de Jesús and Captain Juan Valdés founded the mission of San José and San Miguel de Aguayo, in the San Juan Valley, Texas. Captain Pedro de Villazur and Fray Juan Minguez, led an expedition crossing Colorado and Kansas and later arriving in Nebraska, looking for suspected French settlements in those areas.
1721 Captain Domingo Ramón started construction of Fort Loreto on the Bay of Espíritu Santo at the mouth of San Antonio River. The new governor of Coahuila and Texas, José Azlor Virto de Vera, Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo, reached the Neches area at the head of a strong armed force designed to protect the area and to prevent French incursions in the area. Fort Pilar was built. Franciscan brother José Pita was martyred in Carneceria, Texas, killed by Apaches. The Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo and Fray Isidro Félix de Espinosa founded the mission of San Francisco de los Neches. The Marquis brought with him four hundred sheep and three hundred cattle. This was the beginning of the cattle industry in south Texas.
1722 The mission of San Francisco Javier de Nájera was established near San Antonio, Texas. The Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo brought horses, mules, cattle and sheep in the San Antonio area of Texas.
1723 Alejandro Wauchope arrived at the island of Santa Rosa, Pensacola Bay, to build a garrison and houses for the colonists. The new governor of New Mexico, Juan Domingo Bustamante, prohibited the sale of arms and horses to hostile Indians.
1725 English forces attacked San Marcos Fort at St. Augustine, Florida. Presidios were built in San Antonio de los Adaes and La Bahía to protect the missions and to ward off possible French incurssions into Texas.
1726 Pedro Rivera made an inspection of the frontier posts of Texas.
1727 Gral. Pedro Rivera made a survey of all military posts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Bishop Benito Crespo of Durango, Mexico, visited Arizona as part of the territory under his ecclesiastical authority. He asked the king for permission to found three more missions at his own expense.
1728 The English attacked St. Augustine in retaliation for the Spanish policy of giving sanctuary to runaway slaves from the English colonies. The African-American soldiers fought so bravely that the Spanish governor freed all slaves that were soldiers and abolished slave trade. Thus, becaming the first town in the United States to abolish slave trade.
1730 Sixteen families from the Canary Islands came to settle San Fernando de Bejar, Texas.
1731 More Franciscans arrived in Texas and three more missions were founded: Purísima Concepción, San Francisco de la Espada and San Juan Capistrano. A group of settlers from the Canary Islands, led by Juan Leal Goras, arrived to settle San Antonio, Texas. Fray Benito Fernández de Santa Ana arrived at the mission of San Antonio de Valero as FrayPresident of the four Quereteran missions. The new governor of Texas, Juan Antonio Bustillo y Ceballos, established a peace between the Spanish and the Apaches.
1732 The governor of New Mexico, Gervasio Cruzat y Góngora, forbade gambling, alcoholic beverages and prostitution in the Indian villages. He also forbade the sale of Apache prisoners to Pueblo Indians.
1733 Benjamin Franklin studied Spanish and made it part of the curriculum at the Academy of Philadelphia. Fray Mariano Francisco de los Dolores y Viana arrived in Texas and founded several new missions. Sephardim Jews arrived in Savannah, Georgia.
1734 The mayors of Bernalillo and Acoma, New Mexico, were removed from office for mistreating the natives.
1736 The governor of Coahuila, Blas de la Garza Falcón, explored both banks of the Río Grande.
1737 Texas governor, Carlos de Franquis, was removed from his post after being accused by the Franciscans of using natives for his own interests. Jesuit Father Gaspar Rodero wrote a report on California indicating its fair weather and the overall good quality of the region.
1738 Construction began on the church of San Fernando in San Antonio, Texas. The governor of Florida, Manuel de Montiano y Sopelena, ordered the total freedom of black slaves coming from the Carolinas and Georgia and put them in a settlement north of St. Augustine. The settlement was called "Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose." These men formed a militia and built Fort Mose. The commander was Francisco Menéndez, another former slave. Many of the colonists in Florida were free black craftsmen and soldiers in the Spanish army.
1739 The War of Jenkins' Ear between Spain and England began over the control of Georgia. An epidemic of smallpox and measles broke out in San Antonio and many Indians deserted the missions, but the missionaries were able to bring many of them back the following year.
1740 Revolt of black slaves in Stone, South Carolina. They tried to escape to Florida, but were captured by the English. English forces under general James Oglethorpe from Georgia, attacked St. Augustine.
1741 The first Spanish grammar book was published in the United States by Garret Noel, A Short Introduction to the Spanish Language. The English tried to conquer St. Augustine. Florida governor, Manuel de Montiano, led a Spanish force to destroy the English in Georgia and the Carolinas, during the War of Jenkin's Ear (1740-1748).
1743 The English tried to conquer St. Augustine again. Jesuits José M. Mónaco and José J. Alana created a Catholic community near Florida Cape and the Ratones River.
1744 General José de Escandón started the colonization of the Río Grande Valley, Texas.
1745 Fray Francisco Javier Ortiz reported on his inspection of the San Antonio missions that there were two thousand two hundred and eighty two Christian Indians.
1746 The mission of Cebolleta, New Mexico, was founded. Fray Isidro Félix de Espinosa wrote a chronicle of the apostolic colleges in Texas. Cristóbal de los Santos Coy founded the first Texas non-mission school in San Fernando de Béxar.
1747 Gral. José Escandón established fourteen towns along the Río Grande with five hundred families. The governor of Texas, Francisco García Larios, ordered Joaquín Orobio y Basterra to explore the Gulf Coast. Orobio gave the first description of the present bay of Corpus Christi. Pedro de Rábago y Terán explored the Big Bend country of Texas. José de Escandón was instructed to spread Christianity into the lower Río Grande Valley, Texas.
1748 Jacobo Rodríguez Rivera, a wealthy merchant, settled in Newport, Rhode Island. Introduced sperm oil industry to the colonies and the manufacture of spermaceti candles as well. Fray Francisco Mariano de los Dolores y Viana founded the missions of San Ildefonso and San Francisco Javier de los Horcasitas, Texas.
1749 Fray Mariano de los Dolores extended missionary activity to include the area between the San Marcos and Brazos Rivers, Texas. Spaniards signed a treaty with the Apaches. The Governor's Palace was built in San Antonio, Texas. The mission of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria was founded in Texas. José de Zúñíga founded the Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo Mission, in Goliad, Texas. Captain Oribio y Basterra built the presidio of Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía, in Goliad, Texas. Later, Captains Manuel Ramírez de la Piscina and Francisco Tovar y Cazorla added to its fortifications due to frequent Indian attacks.
1750 The governor of New Mexico, Tomás Vélez Capuchín, battled the Comanches. The settlements of Dolores, Peñitas and La Lomita were founded on the banks of the Río Grande, Texas. Pedro de Bustamante led a punitive expedition into Colorado against hostile Indians.
1751 Sugar cane was introduced in Louisiana by Spanish missionaries from Santo Domingo. Pima Indian rebellion in Arizona. Frs. Francisco Javier Saeta and Enrique Ruhen were killed with other 100 people at Sonoita Arizona and Caborca, Sonora. Jacinto de Barrios y Jáuregui was appointed governor and captain-general of Texas. He encouraged missionary work in the region.
1752 Captain Juan Bautista Anza founded the settlement of Tubac, Arizona. Fray José Ganzábal was martyred in Texas.
1753 José Vázquez Borrego started a ferry service to cross the Río Grande to Dolores, Mexico.
1754 Fray Juan de Dios Cambreras founded the Mission of Our Lady of the Rosary, near La Bahía, Texas. The San Marcos de Apalache Fort was rebuilt, yet again, under the direction of engineer Juan de la Cotilla. New Mexico governor, Antonio del Valle, built the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Luz, in Santa Fe.
1755 Tomás Sánchez, a member of José Escandón's expedition, founded Laredo, Texas. José Escandón founded a settlement north of Laredo. The Mission of San Francisco de Asís was built in Rancho de Taos, New Mexico. The town of Nuestra Señora de Dolores was founded thirty miles below the present city of Laredo, on land owned by Juan Antonio Vidaurri and José Vásquez Borrego.
1756 Mission of Our Lady of the Light was built on Galveston Bay, at the mouth of the Trinity River, Texas. The mission of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe was founded in Texas. Jacinto Barrios y Jáuregui and Marcos Ruiz founded the presidio of San Agustín de Ahumada, near present-day Wallisville, Texas. Texas lieutenant-governor, Bernardo de Miranda, explored de Llano and Colorado regions in search of mineral deposits. The city of Pensacola, Florida, was built with an stockade to protect Christian Indians.
1757 Pedro Romero de Terreros donated 150,000 pesos for the establishment of a mission and town near the San Sabas River, Texas. Colonel Diego Ortiz y Parrilla built the San Luis de las Amarillas Fort, Texas. He had brought 400 settlers, mostly from the Canary Islands. The mission of San Sabá de la Santa Cruz was established in the San Saba River, near present-day Menard, Texas. It was destroyed by Comanches the following year. José de la Tienda, a Texas rancher, reported having 80,000 head of cattle, horses and mules and over 300,000 sheep. Jesuit priest Andrés Burriel wrote a book about California, which was later translated into several European languages. Miguel Venegas published in Spain a history of California. Colonists from the Canary Islands arrived in Florida. Francisco María Celi arrived at what is now the town of Temple Terrace (in the Tampa region) to explore for pine trees to be used as masts by the Spanish Navy. He called the forest "El Piñal de la Cruz de Santa Teresa." The expedition drew a detailed map of the Great Bay of Tampa. David Rodríguez Monsanto, a Sepahrdim Jew, moved to New Orleans where he founded a trading company. He was very succesful until he was expelled by the Spanish governor.
1758 The Mission of San Sabas was destroyed by Comanches. Fray Alonso Giraldo de Terreros and Fray José Santiestebán were martyred.
1759 The Bishop of Guadalajara, Mexico, Francisco Martínez Tejada visited the missions of the Río Grande and San Antonio, Texas. There he confirmed 644 persons, Spanish and Apache. Captain Alonso Rubín de Celis found a presidio in Presidio del Norte, Texas.
1760 Captain Blas María de la Garza Falcón received a royal charter of land in Texas of 975,000 acres. He called it "King Ranch of Santa Petronilla", the largest land-holding piece in the United States. Bishop Pedro Tamarón Romeral of Durango, Mexico, visited New Mexico. There he confirmed about 14,000 people. Fray Bartolomé García wrote a guide for missionaries on how to minister to the natives. He translated it into the native language of the Texas Indians. Felipe de Rábago y Terán rebuilt the San Saba presidio, Texas.
1761 A wall was built around the mission of San Antonio, Texas, for the protection against Apaches. Fray Diego Jiménez and Captain Felipe Rábago y Terán began construction of the San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz Mission, on the banks of the Nueces River, Texas. They also built Candelaria Mission. The Apaches led a fierce attack on the Pueblo de Taos, New Mexico. As a reprisal, Governor Manuel de Portillo y Urrizola sent out a punitive expedition during which 400 Indians were killed. Juan María de Rivera was the first European to cross the Rockies. The Governor of New Mexico, Tomás Vélez Capuchín, sent Juan María de Rivera, Joaquín Laín, Gregorio Sandoval and Pedro Mora in an expedition to Colorado in search of precious minerals. 100 Catalonians arrived in Florida.
1762 France ceded Louisiana to Spain, but did not actually take over until 1765. By the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1810), Spain receded Louisiana to France. English forces occupied Havana briefly. France and Spain went to war against England. The mission of San Lorenzo del Cañón was founded on the east bank of the San Antonio River, Texas. New Mexico Governor Tomás Vélez Capuchín made a truce with the Comanches.
1763 The Peace Treaty of Paris was signed. England gave Havana back to Spain in return for Florida and Georgia, while France ceded Louisiana to Spain, as compensation. The English expelled from the St. Augustine area all Christian natives. They went West and took the name of Seminole. 200 families from the Canary Islands arrived to settle in Florida.
1764 Cuba became a separate captaincy-general. Within that arrangement in the Spanish empire, Florida and Louisiana fell under Cuban jurisdiction.
1765 Captain Juan Rivera led an expedition across the Rocky Mountains. English colonists arrived in Florida.
1766 Juan Alonso Ulloa, a scientist and an officer in the Spanish Navy, was appointed governor of Louisiana. He founded the first astronomical observatory and the first laboratory for the study and analysis of metals. A Texas storm destroyed the presidio and mission of San Agustín. José de la Garza Falcón led an expedition from Camargo to Texas to explore the coast and look for suspected English settlements there. The play by Henry Fielding Don Quixote in England, based on the work by Miguel de Cervantes, enjoyed great success in Philadelphia.
1767 Spain expelled the Jesuists from all her territories. A Royal Commission arrived in Texas to distribute land in the area of Nuevo Santander. Many of the properties in this area can trace their origins to these deeds (Deeds of the General Visit of Inspection). Spanish laws regarding water rights and usage became the foundations of the current Texas laws regarding water rights and usage. 1767-1768 Fray Gaspar José de Solís inspected Texas missions.
1768 The king of Spain sent a military force to Upper California as a precautionary measure to prevent Russian encroachment in that area. Two ships left La Paz, in Lower California, with soldiers and missionaries, Fray Fernando Parrón, Fray Francisco Gómez and Fray Juan González Vizcaíno. Two other expeditions left by land, one left from Loreto and was headed by Captain Gaspar de Portolá and Fray Junípero Serra and another one left from Velicata and was headed by Capt. Juan Rivera and Capt. Juan Crespi. Both met in San Diego Bay. Fray Serra founded the Mission of San Diego. The expeditions explored the area in great detail. 1,255 colonists from Minorca Island, Spain, arrived in St. Augustine.
• 1768-1774 Missionary-explorer Francisco Tomás Hermenegildo Garcés, from the Mission of San Xavier du Bac, arrived in New Mexico. He remained for six years and made four expeditions to the Gila and Colorado rivers.
1769 King Charles III of Spain, ordered the founding of missions along the Pacific Coast. A mission was founded at San Diego, in honor of San Diego de Alcalá by Fray Junípero Serra. Pedro Fages and Gaspar de Portolá, discovered San Francisco Bay, Monterrey Bay and founded the mission of San Carlos de Borromeo, in present-day Carmel, California. José Francisco de Ortega, a member of Portolá's expedition, discovered San Francisco Bay. The first Indians to be Christianized in California were baptized by Fray Juan Crespi at Los Cristianos, near present-day San Clemente. Fray Crespi had accompanied Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada on one of the expeditions to San Diego. Portolá was the first white man to discover oil in California when he camped at the Brea Pits in Los Angeles. Fray Crespi called the location "Spring of the Anders of San Estevan." Fray Junípero Serra founded the Missions of San Fernando de Vellicatá and San Diego de Alcalá. He introduced cattle ranching in California. Alejandro O'Reilly arrived in New Orleans as Spanish governor of Louisiana. The Apaches attacked the mission of San José de Tumacacori, Arizona, and burned it to the ground.
1770 Fray Serra founded the Mission of San Carlos Borromeo, CA. Miguel Costanso published his work on Upper California. Portolá led another expedition to Monterey Bay. The mission of San Carlos de Monterey was founded by Fray Junípero Serra. It was later moved in 1771 to its present site on the banks of the Río Carmelo and re-named "Misión de San Carlos de Borromeo del Carmelo." Portolá and Fray Serra founded the presidio of Monterey, California. Capt. Pedro Fages led an exploration through the Santa Clara Valley, up to San Francisco Bay to near the present-day city of Alameda, California. Between the missions of Holy Spirit and that of El Rosario, Texas, there were around seventy thousand head of cattle. Settlers from the José de Escandón colony began settling San Benito, Texas. The San Elizario Mission and presidio were founded in Texas.
1771 Friars Junípero Serra, Miguel Pieras and Buenaventura Sitjar founded the mission of San Antonio de Padua. Friars Angel Somera and Pedro Benito Cambón founded the mission of San Gabriel Arcángel, near present-day Los Angeles.
1772 Friars Junípero Serra and José Cavaller founded the Mission of San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, California. Captain Pedro Fages explored San Francisco Bay and Sacramento River and the San Joaquín Valley.
• Fray Cirilo de Barcelona and four other Capuchins arrived in New Orleans. San Antonio was made the capital of Texas.
• Luis Cazorla explored the Texas coast looking for a suspected English trading post.
• Antonio de Bonilla wrote the first history of Texas.
• Fr. Francisco Garcés founded Tucson, Arizona.
1773 Antonio Gil y Barbo and his descendants established the town of Nacogdoches, Texas.
• The mission of San Elizario was founded on the Rio Grande, just below El Paso, Texas.
• The first California boundary was established by Fray Francisco Palou put up a cross to define the limits of the missionary provinces of Lower California (Dominicans) and Upper California (Franciscans).
1774 Captain Anza, Fray Garcés and Juan Díaz, with twenty soldiers, established a land route between the American Southwest and California.
• 1774-1775 Juan Pérez and Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra explored the coast of the North Pacific. During this voyage, Pérez explored the Coast of Oregón, Washington, British Columbia, Prince of Wales Islands and also the Bay of Nootka at Vancouver Island and Seattle Bay.
• Juan Pérez sailed from Monterey to explore and conquer the northwest coast of America to 60 degrees. He reached Queen Charlotte's Island in 55 degrees.
1775 A Spanish woman gave birth to the first European born in California, Salvador Ignacio Linares. His parents were members of the expedition Anza had sent to colonize San Francisco.
• Juan B. Anza founded the city of San Francisco, California.
• Bruno Heceta and Juan Pérez led another Spanish expedition to explore the coast of the North Pacific. Triniday Bay and the mouth of the California River were discovered.
• Juan Manuel de Ayala with pilots José Cañizares and Juan Bautista Aguirre entered San Francisco Bay, California, and mapped it.
• Monterey became the capital of California.
• The Continental Congress adopted the Spanish dollar as its currency. The simbol derived from the two pillars and the wrapping motto "Plus Ultra" from the Spanish royal coat of arms.
• Capt. Juan Baustista de Anza led a second land expedition to California from San Miguel de Horcasitas, Sonora. Accompanying him were 240 colonists, mules, horses and cattle and Fray Pedro Font and Fray Francisco Garcés.
• Indians attacked the San Diego Mission and killed Fray Luis Jaume, thus, becoming the first California martyr.
• Fray Garcés left Anza's expedition to travel and teach Christianity to the Indians of Southern California.
• Fray Francisco Garcés was probably the first European to set foot in Nevada. Fray Pedro Font, a companion of Fray Garcés, saw snow-covered peaks, which he called Sierra Nevada.
• Carlos Butrón and his Indian wife received the first land grant in California, near the San Carlos de Barromea Mission.
• 1775-1776 Fray Francisco Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and Fray Atanasio Domínguez explored Arizona, Colorado and Utah.
1776 The College of Philadelphia offered the first college course in the U.S. on Spanish grammar and literature.
• Spanish missionaries and settlers founded the Dolores Mission at the center of today's San Francisco.
• José Joaquín Moraga and Friars Tomás de la Peña and Francisco Palou founded the presidio of San Francisco, California.
• The mission of San Francisco de Asis, in California, was founded by Friars Francisco Palou, Pedro Cambón, José Nocedal and Tomás de la Peña.
• Friars Junípero Serra and Gregorio Amurrio founded the mission of San Juan Capistrano, in California. It had been previously founded in 1775 by Fray Fermín Lasuén and Lt. José Francisco Ortega, but it had been abandoned.
• The presidio of San Agustín del Tucson was built. The fortifications were a palisade at first raised by Commander Pedro Allende y Saavedra. Later, however, adobe walls were built. Thus, Tucson, became the only walled city of the United States.
• The Thirteen Colonies declared independence from England.
• Luis Unzaga, Spanish governor of Louisiana, sent 10,000 pounds of gunpowder to General Charles Lee.
• Charles III, king of Spain, ordered that help be given to the American revolutionaries in their fight against England, from Cuba, Louisiana, Texas and Mexico.
• Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee and Silas Deane were sent to Spain by the Congress of Virginia to request Spanish aid.
• Charles III authorized in September 1 million torinese pounds for the American revolutionaries. The funds were used to buy the following: 216 cannons, 27 mortars, 209 canon carriages, 12,826 bombs, 51,134 bullets, 30,000 rifles with bayonets, 4,000 tents, 30,000 uniforms and large amounts of gunpowder and lead. These funds were also used to finance the trip of General Marquis de Lafayette to America.
• One hundred Spaniards fighting with the revolutionaries were taken prisoners by the British in New York.
• Jorge Farragut, a Spanish merchant, joined the fight against England. He will be the father of David G. Farragut, the first admiral of the U.S. navy during this country's civil war.
• In October, Charles III, issued a decree recognizing the right of the English colonies to their own sovereignty.
• Fray Francisco Garcés was the first to cross the Grand Canyon, from west to east. Franciscans Silvestre Vélez Escalante and Atanasio Domínguez, led and expedition from Santa Fe to find a good passage to California. They went through the western part of Colorado and arrived at Utah Lake. They descended toward Arizona crossing the Grand Canyon from east to west for the first time. Fray Escalante spent 25 years exploring the territories of New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, while doing missionary work with the Yuma, Comanche, Apache, Tirangapuy, Moqui, Zuñi, Navajo and Pueblo Indians.
• Spain separated the northern territories of New Spain from the jurisdiction of the viceroy of Mexico to create a semiautonomous region called the "Internal Provinces." Under this arrangement, Texas and Nuevo León became the Eastern Internal Provinces and New Mexico and Arizona, the Western Internal Provinces. • Captain Fernando Rivera led a group of settlers from Arizona to California. Most of them were killed by the Yuma Indians.
1777 Arthur Lee, official representative of the 13 colonies reached and agreement with the Spanish government, by which it would send aid to the American rebels.
• Juan de Miralles, left Cuba to establish a diplomatic liason between the Spanish government and the Congress of Philadelphia.
• The new Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, a key figure in the revolutionary war against England, apprehended 11 British ships and expelled all the British subjects from the territories under his control. He also opened the Mississipi River to free navigation and trade with the Thirteen Rebel Colonies and informed the Continental Congress that they were free to buy supplies in Spanish territory. He allowed American ships into New Orleans.
• Gálvez allowed a representative of the rebels to open and maintain a building in New Orleans to buy and store supplies for the rebels.
• Gálvez, himself, became very open in his support of the rebels and he sent many supplies to Virginia and Pennsylvania on Spanish ships. In this year he sent $74,000 worth of supplies and a shipment that arrived from Spain consisting of 6 cases of quinine, 8 cases of medicine, 108 cotton bales, 15,000 pounds of gunpowder and 300 rifles with bayonets.
• An invoice of the Spanish government showed a total of $7,730,000 worth of materials and supplies for the American revolutionaries. It consisted of the following: 8 warships, copper and tin for cannons, 60,000 pairs of shoes, 10 tons of gunpowder, 80,000 blankets, 80,000 shirts, 3,000 horse saddles.
• Felipe de Neve, the first Spanish governor of California, sent Liutenant Joaquín Moraga and Fray Tomás Peña and José Munguía to establish a town, later known as San José, on the banks of the San José River.
• The Santa Clara Mission in California was founded by Fray Tomás de la Peña. Juan Agustín Morfi compiled a history of Texas.
• Bernardo de Gálvez surveyed the Texas coast, looking for English troops.
1778 Gálvez sent another shipment of supplies to the revolutionaries worth 100,000 gold dollars.
• 12,000 rifles arrived in Boston from Spain.
Spanish businessman, José M. Vigo, funded the campaign of General George Rogers Clark for the capture of Vicennes, Indiana.
• 2,100 colonists from the Canary Islands arrived in Louisiana. They founded the city of New Iberia together with colonists from Málaga. Another 100 colonists arrived from Granada.
• 1778-1883 3,000 Canary Islanders arrived in Louisiana, mainly to Galveztown, Valenzuela, La Concepción, Barataria and San Bernardo, which was started by Pedro Felipe de Marigny, a lieutenant of Gálvez, who brought some of those Canary Islanders to work on his land grant. He provided them with land, tools, seeds and money to build their houses.
• Fernando de Leyba assumed command of St. Louis (Missouri). He played a key role in supplying Gen. George Rogers Clark.
1779 Spain declared war on England and recognized the sovereignty of the American colonists.
• General Antonio Barceló blockaded Gibraltar, therefore, no English ship left from there to America.
• The Spanish navy attacked the British in the Bahamas.
• A Spanish fleet of 13 ships under the command of Admiral José Solano, patrolled and protected the east coast from British attacks.
• Lt. General Luis Córdoba captured 70 British ships at Espartel Cape.
• Ignacio Arteaga and Juan B. Bodega y Quadra explored the Pacific Coast north of California.
• Franciscans Francisco Garcés and Juan Díaz and Commander Teodoro Croix, established a mission and a town in Yuma, Arizona.
• Governor Felipe de Neve drafted his Reglamento, a legislative code for the province of the Californias.
• Gálvez took Manchac, Batoun Rouge and other important objectives in the South. In one month, he controlled the lower region of the Mississipi River.
• Capt. Juan Bautista de Anza defeated the Comanche leader Cuerno Verde. Sometime later, however, Anza was asked by the Comanche Chief Paruanarimuco to help them become sedentary. Anza helped them to settle on the banks of the Arkansas River and they founded the town of San Carlos de los Jupes (the Jupes were one of the Comanche groups). Anza sent them 30 farmers with tools and seeds and masterbuilder Manuel Segura. Anza also supplied them with livestock. • Antonio Gil y Barbo was appointed Lieutenant-governor of Texas. He was the first Hispanic of African heritage to achieve such high position.
1780 Gálvez took Mobile, Alabama.
• Commander Teodoro de Croix ordered the establishment of two missions on the California side of the Colorado River. The first one, located opposite Yuma was founded by Friars Juan Antonio Barreneche and Francisco Garcés and named "Misión La Purísima Concepción de María Santísima." The second mission was founded twelve miles down the river by Friars Juan Díaz and Matías Moreno and named "Misión San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer." Washington presided at the funeral for Juan Miralles, an Spanish emmisary, who had died while visiting him in Morristown, New Jersey. Miralles was buried with great pomp and military honors.
• Commander Fernando de Leyba built Fort San Carlos to defend the city of St. Louis against an English force much larger than his own of 25 soldiers and 289 civilians. After a two-hour battle, the English were forced to withdraw. As a result, the English were unable to gain control of the Mississippi Valley.
• Captain Baltasar de Villiers took possession of the territory of Mississippi in the name of the King of Spain.
• English forces attacked Spanish, French and Revolutionary traders on the bank of the Little Maquoketa River (Iowa). As a reprisal, a force of 300 men was organized, 100 of which were provided by the Spanish Lt. Governor of St. Louis, Fernando de Leyba.
• Benjamin Nones, a Sephardim Jew, became the first official interpreter of Spanish and French for the United States government.
1781 March 9. Gálvez reached the Bay of Pensacola, Florida, commanding an expeditionary force organized in Cuba, with soldiers from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Pensacola fell to Gálvez, after 61 days of seige, one of the greatest military feats of the Revolutionary War, taking over 10,000 English prisoners. With this victory, the British were definitely expelled from the Gulf of Mexico.
• John Jay was appointed Minister to Spain.
• George Washington and his family spent the winter at the home of Francisco Rendon, Spanish representative in Philadelphia.
• Bernardo de Otter, lent Oliver Pollock $40,000 of his own fortune, to buy supplies for the revolutionaries.
• Miguel Cajigal, the Spanish governor of Cuba, raised 1,200,000 torinese pounds for the Americans. This was used to prepare for the battle of Yorktown, which clinched the independence of the United States.
• Yuma Indians attacked the missions of San Pedro y San Pablo and La Concepción (California). Friars Francisco Garcés, Juan Díaz, Juan Antonio Barreneche and José Matías Moreno were killed, as well as, 100 other people.
• Felipe Neve founded the city of Los Angeles, California, as Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles.
• John Hay published his Castilian Days.
• Spanish troops and Indian allies attacked the English fort of St. Joseph, in Nile, Michigan.
1782 Friars Serra and Cambón founded the mission of San Buenaventura, California.
• Lieutenant José Francisco de Ortega founded a presidio at Santa Barbara, California.
• England reorganized her forces in the Bahamas in an attempt to counterattack and take over the colonies again. The Spanish navy defeated them.
• Poet Antonio Crespo y Neva wrote a collection of poems dedicated to Bernardo de Gálvez. He died in New Orleans the following year.
1783 By the Treaty of Versailles, East Florida was returned to Spain, ending twenty years of British occupation.
• Juan Bautista Filhiol and a group of settlers started the city of Monroe, Louisiana.
• The Congress of Philadelphia passed a resolution, bestowing on the King of Spain, Carlos III, the title: "Powerful Protector and Defender of the Independence of the United States of America."
1784 Fray Junípero Serra died in California.
• Fray Francisco Palou became Father President of the California missions. He wrote a biography of Fray Serra.
• The first land grant in California was given by gov. Pedro Fages to José María Verdugo. It covered portions of the present-day cities of Glendale and Burbank.
Construction began on the mission of San Javier del Bac, Arizona.
• John Adams, Benjamin Frayanklin and Thomas Jefferson were appointed ministers plenipotentiary to Spain. Frayanklin was admitted into the Royal Historical Society.
1785 Esteban Rodríguez Miró became governor of Louisiana. He continued with the same capable and enlightened administration as his predecessor, Bernardo de Gálvez. He provided the leadership needed after the fire that destroyed the center of town.
• After the fire, Andrés Almonester y Rojas, funded with his own fortune the cathedral of St. Louis, the Cabildo, a hospital, a public school and the chapel of the Ursuline Sisters in New Orleans.
1786 Pedro Vial began planning the Spanish Trail, a route to link San Diego and St. Augustine, Florida. This was the beginning of U.S. Highway 80.
• As a result of Spain's continuous support and her open door policy to Americans to trade with her colonies, the Congress granted Spain control of both shores of the Mississippi River for twenty-five years.
• Friars Fermín Lasuén, Antonio Paterna and Cristóbal Orámas founded the mission of Santa Barbara, in California.
• Juan Bautista Anza and the Comanches signed a peace treaty. The Comanche chiefs travelled to Santa Fe for the signing of the treaty which was done amid great pomp and ceremonies.
• José Francisco de la Mata established a school in San Antonio de Bejar, Texas. St. Peter's Church in New York was opened in the presence of the Spanish Ambassador, Diego de Gardoqui, who had led the effort to raise funds for its construction. At the banquet, Washington was seated at Gardoqui's right and the church trustees, in gratitude to Gardoqui, decided to reserve "forever, a bench situated in a preferential position for the use of the representatives of His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain."
1787 An attempt was made to create an independent state called "Franklin State" and the governor asked for help to Spain. Spain declined and the secessionist movement did not progress.
• Another movement appeared to create an independent state west of the Alleghenies but, again, Spain refused mostly as a result of her good relations with the United States.
• Spain granted permission to thirty families from the United States to settle in Camden County, Arkansas.
• José Mares led a survey group to find a shorter route from Santa Fe, New Mexico to San Antonio, Texas.
• Fray Fermín Lasuén founded the mission of La Purísima Concepción in California.
• Fray Francisco Palou wrote a history of Upper California.
• The King of Spain ordered that English-speaking priests be sent to West Florida to minister the English-speaking community there.
• Estebán Martínez, acting on Crown's orders built a fort on Vancouver Island, as a preventive measure against possible Russian encroachment in the area. He was accompanied by three missionaries, Inés López, José Díaz and Nicolás López.
• The Spanish governor of Louisiana, Esteban Miró, granted permission to George Morgan to establish a town there.
• George Washington was inaugurated as the first President of the United States. At his right stood Diego de Gardoqui, the Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. The Spanish warship Galveston (named that way in honor of Bernardo de Gálvez) guarded the entrance to New York Bay.
• The Santa Barbara Mission, California, was founded.
• An expedition led by Esteban Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro explored the Pacific coast up to the 60th parallel.
1789 Spaniards built Fort Esteban, near Jackson, in Clarke County, Alabama. Manuel Gayoso de Lemos became governor of Natchez. He was a very intelligent and capable person and very popular with the people. He was a key figure in the creation of the Mississippi naval squadron and of the citizens' militia.
• Toribio Otero received a land grant from the King of Spain in Tubac, Arizona. His great grandson Sabino Otero, became the "The Cattle King of Tubac", administering the largest ranching operation in southern Arizona in the 1870's and 1880's.
1790 Washington gave his famous speech on religious freedom at the Touro Synagogue, in Rhode Island. The Touro synagogue was built by Sephardim Jews. • The Spanish governor of California, Pedro Fages, conceived the idea of a transcontinental road, when he suggested to his superiors contacting George Washington about the possibility of constructing a road from Virginia to California.
• An expedition led by Francisco Eliza reached the Bay of Nootka.
1791 Spain introduced sugar cane to Louisiana and established the first sugar refinery in New Orleans.
• Alejandro Malaspina and José Bustamante left Spain on the corvettes Descubierta and Atrevida, for a scientific expedition to the North Pacific and to attempt to find a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
• Francisco Marín arrived in Hawaii. Brought many different plants, fruits and instructed the natives in Catholicism. It seems that the native King Kamehameha was very fond of him. Friars Alonso Salazar and Baldomero López in California founded the Mission of Santa Cruz, near the San Lorenzo River.
• The Mission of María Santísima de la Soledad was founded in California, by Friars Fermín Francisco Lasuén, Buenaventura Sitjar and Diego García.
• Francisco Luis Héctor, Baron of Carondelet, was appointed governor of Louisiana. The New Orleans Channel was built, as well as, the first theater.
Jacon Newton Cardozo became the editor of Charleston's Southern Patriot. Thus, Cardozo, a Sephardim Jew, was the first Hispanic to be editor of a newspaper.
1792 Several expeditions explored the North Pacific Coast, such as the ones led by Bodega y Quadra (again), Dionisio Galiano, Cayetano Valdés and Salvador Fidalgo.
• Pedro Vial explored what later became the Santa Fe Trail.
• Fray Juan Domingo Arricivita wrote a history of the Texas missions.
• Naturalist José Mariano Moziño Suárez Losada was the first to describe the Nootka region of Alaska. A member of the expedition, Atanasio Echevarría y Godoy, made drawings of the flora and fauna.
1793 Juan Martínez Zayas reached the mouth of the Columbia River, on the West Coast.
• During this year, and as a result of the heavy trade between the two countries, 162 United States ships have arrived to the port of Cadiz, Spain.
• The governor of Louisiana, Baron Carandolet, encouraged more trade along the Missouri River.
• By this year there were in Puerto Rico 38 parishes, 35 shrines, 97 religious brotherhoods, three hospital and three monasteries.
• The mission of Nuestra Señora del Refugio was founded with the goal of civilizing and Christianizing the Karankawas. This was the last Spanish mission founded in Texas.
• The Compañía de Exploradores del Alto Missouri began its operations, reaching the Dakotas. The company was commonly known as the Spanish Missouri Company.
• The King of Spain issued a decree mandating public education in the Spanish colonies.
• The first book published by a Hispanic printer or publisher was W.H. Dilworth's The Complete Letter Writer, or Young Secretary's Instructor, published by Benjamin Gómez in New York. Gómez was a Sephardim Jew.
• Construction of the cathedral in St. Augustine began under the direction of Mariano de la Rocque.
1794 By crown orders, all Texas missions were secularized. Every Indian in the missions was to enjoy the same rights Spanish law granted Spaniards.
• The first public schools in California were founded by Spanish governor Diego de Borica. During his term in office, the governor built ten more schools.
1795 The United States and Spain signed the Pinckney Treaty, by which Spain ceded the forts and ports to the United States on the eastern side of the Mississippi River. She also opened the river to free American navigation. The new border between the two countries was set at the 31 parallel.
• Spanish trade along the Missouri continued to increase.
• Fray Luis de Peñalver y Cárdenas became the first bishop of Louisiana and Florida. The limits of the diocese streched from Mexico to Baltimore, with his see in New Orleans. He was accompanied by the Capuchin Fr. Francisco Antonio Moreno y Arze, who was appointed parish priest of the Cathedral. He was greatly loved and admired by his parishioners and remains a well known historical figure.
• The governor of Louisiana, Baron of Carondelet, allowed American colonists to settle in Spanish territory, regardless of their religion.
• Captain Juan Pablo Grijalva founded a presidio in the San José Valley, California.
• Hipólito San Joseph Giral del Pino wrote and published a New Spanish Grammar. This was the first book written and published by a Hispanic in the United States.
1796 Julián Dubuque received permission from Carandolet to work the silver mines in Iowa. He also founded a city.
• Juan Pablo Grijalva received a land grant from the Spanish Crown, north of San Diego, which later became the Santa Ana Ranch.
1797 The Spanish began construction of the main church of the mission of San Juan Capistrano, California. It was completed in 1806.
• More missions were founded this year in California: San José de Guadalupe (by Fray Lasuén), San Juan Bautista (by Friars José Manuel Martiarena and Magín Catalá), which will he rise to the town of St. John the Baptist, the Mission of San Miguel Arcángel (by Friars Lasuén and Sitjar) and San Fernando Rey de España (by Friars Lasuén and Francisco Dumetz). The missions not only attempted the christianize Indians, but also trained them in the trades, such as, carpenters, painters, masons, etc.
• California governor Diego de Borica founded the Villa de Branciforte, named after the Marqués de Branciforte, Miguel de la Grua Talamanca, viceroy of Mexico. The settlement did not thrive and was abandoned a few years later.
1798 The Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia was founded in California by Friars Lasuén, Antonio Peyri and Juan José Norberto Santiago.
• The new governor of Louisiana, Manuel Gayoso, gave permission to Daniel Boone to settle there.
1800 The Spanish missions of Arizona, California, New Mexico are prospering.
• Lieutenant Colonel Carrisco discovered the copper mine of St. Rita, New Mexico.
• Thirty-seven Franciscans arrived for the Florida missions.
• William Dunlap wrote three comedy plays with Spanish themes: La Vírgen del Sol (The Virgin of the Sun), El Caballero del Guadalquivir (The Knight of the Guadalquivir) and Pizarro in Peru.
• Judah Touro, a Sepahrdim Jew, moved to New Orleans, where he created one of the largest commercial empires in the United States. In time he became one of the 10 richest Americans.
1801 The governor of New Mexico, Fernando Chacón, reinforced the town of Cebolleta against Navajo attacks.
• David G. Farragut, the first admiral of the U.S. Navy, was born. His father was from Minorca, Spain.
1802 One hundred merino were sheep brought from Spain to the United States by the U.S. Minister there.Daniel Boone settled in Missouri. He pledged allegiance to the King of Spain
• Texas governor Juan Bautista Elquezabál issued a proclamation compelling parents to send their children to school to improve their education. This was the first compulsory education law in the United States.
1803 The Louisiana territory became part of the United States.
• A report of the California missions indicated that there were 24,544 Christians (both Spanish and natives).
1804 Friars Estevan Tapis, José Antonio Calzada, Marcelino Ciprés and Romualdo Gutiérrez founde of Santa Inés, California.
• The records of the San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, in California, indicate that there were over two thousand baptisms that year.
• The United States annexed the territory of Western Florida.
• A royal decree by the Spanish Crown divided California into Upper California and Lower California.
1805 Dr. Larrañaga administered preventive vaccinations in the settlements and missions of New Mexico.
• Franciscans introduced oranges in California.
1806 Pedro Lartigue began practice as the first dentist in Texas.
• Simón Herrera established a hospital in San Antonio, Texas.
• Friar José María Zalvidea and Franciso Ruiz explored the San Joaquín Valley, California.
1807 Manuel Lisa built the first trading post in Montana, which he called Fort Ramón, in memory of his son.
• Fray Nicolás Bari began preaching to the Karamkawa of Padre Island, Texas. The Karamkawa were cannibals.
• The Spaniards encourage migration to Texas to prevent Anglo encroachment.
• Sixteen families settled in Villa de San Marcos de Neve (near San Marcos).
1808 Manuel Lisa established the Missouri Fur Company. He was very active in Kansas and Nebraska and was instrumental in opening up the Great Plains to the white man.
• Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain. This will have repercussions throughout her territories in the Americas. The independence movement began.
• The first Spanish-language newspaper published in the continental U.S. was El Misisipí, published in New Orleans.
• The first book of exile literature in the United States was España ensangrentada, written by a "Viejo castizo español" (old pure blooded Spaniard).
1809 The Spanish Junta (in the areas not occupied by the French army) issued a decree giving all her territories in America the right to elect delegates to send to the Spanish Cortes (Parliament).
• Texas governor Manuel María Salcedo intiated the idea of parking meters to raise revenues. Riders and muleteers were charged twenty-five cents for the right to hitch their mounts and beasts of burden.
1810 Eugenio Gutiérrez settled in Webb County, Texas, with a royal land grant.
1811 Pedro Bautista Pino was sent as a representative of New Mexico to the Spanish Cortes (Parliament) at Cádiz.
• Friars Ramón Abella and Buenaventura Fortuni explored the San Joaquín River.
• Juan Bautista de las Casas led a coup d'etat against the Crown in San Antonio, Texas.
• Dr. Samuel Lathan Mitchell, an expert in Spanish literature gave a report to Congress encouraging relations with the emerging nations of the American continent.
1812 Miguel Ramos Arizpe was sent to represent the province of Coahuila-Texas at the sessions of the "Cortes of Cádiz", Spain.
• Several U.S. traders were arrested in Santa Fe for having entered Spanish territory illegally.
• The United States took over Mobile, Alabama and West Florida.
• Fray Andrés Quintana was martyred in the Mission of Santa Cruz, California.
• Manuel García de la Sena published in Philadelphia, Historia concisa de los Estados Unidos, the first general history of the United States in Spanish.
1813 Maurizio Arza and Lagos García were in Utah trading leather and slaves.
• Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara led an insurrection in San Antonio, Texas, against Governor Manuel Salcedo, and declared an independent republic. Four months later, Spanish troops from Laredo suppressed the movement.
• The first newspaper of Texas, El Mexicano, was published in Nacogdoches.
1814 Gato (Cat) Island in the Mississippi Dealta, was given by the state to the Spanish envoy Juan de las Cuevas as a reward for having saved New Orleans from a British attack in the War of 1812. His great-great-grandson is Hale Boggs, former congressman from Louisiana.
1815 Abiel Smith endowed Harvard University with funds to establish the Smith Chair of Spanish, later to be held by many prestigious Americans, among them, Henry Longfellow.
• George Gordon Meade was born in Cádiz, Spain. He played an important role during the Civil War.
• The Mission of San Diego, California, prospered. It was well known for the production of fine wines.
1817 Spanish Governor José Coppinger drove from Amelia Island (Florida), some adventurers who, under the leadership of the Scottman Gregor McGregor, declared the independence of the island.
• Franciscans Vicente Francisco Sarriá, Luis Gil y Taboada, Ramón Abella and Narciso Durán founded the Mission of San Rafael Arcángel, in California.
• Spain became the first European power to outlaw slave trade in her possession north of the Equator.
1818 Gonzáles Lupton, a Spanish employee of the American Fur Company, established one of the first trading posts on the South Platte River in Colorado.
• Fray Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, who headed the San Juan Bautista Mission in California, wrote two books on the Mutsumi language. This friar could understand twelve different Indian languages and could preach in seven of them.
1819 By the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
• By the 1819 Treaty with Spain, the northern border of California was set at the 42nd parallel.
• James Long reached Nacogdoches and declared the independence of Texas. The Governor Antonio Martínez suppresed the rebellion and sent Long to Mexico, where he was shot by a guard when he tried to escape.
1820 Pedro Bautista Pino was appointed to represent New Mexico at the new sessions of the Cortes (Parliament) in Spain.
• The Spanish Cortes issued a decree encouraging U.S. colonists to come to Texas. They would be given land grants if they become Spanish citizens. Moses Austin accepted these terms and became a Spanish citizen and, later, converted to Catholicism. He established the town of Austin with three hundred families.
• A fort was built near the Sangre de Cristo Pass in Walseburg, Colorado, to protect Spanish colonists.
1820-1830 2,688 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1821 Spain ceded the remainder of its Florida territory to the United States.
• The first great eulogy by a Hispanic recorded in history was that given by Capt. Jacob de la Motta, a Sephardim Jew, on the occassion of the death of another Sephardim Jew, Gershom Mendes Seixas.
1822 Joseph Marion Hernández, a descendant of Spaniards born in Florida in 1793 when it was still a Spanish colony, was elected to Congress. He was the first Hispanic elected to the U.S. Congress.
• Spain ceded to Mexico the regions of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and California.
• Antonio J. Martínez was ordained priest in New Mexico. In Taos, worked with children and built schools. He also founded a Spanish-language newspaper.
• The first anthology of Spanish literature was published in Baltimore, entitled Extractos de los más célebres escritores y poetas españoles.
1823 Spanish founded a mission in Sonoma, Alta California. This was the last Spanish mission founded in the United States.
1824 Conductor, composer Jaime Nuñó was born in San Juan de las Abadesas, Spain. He later came to the United States, as a performer and a teacher.
• Martín de León, from Burgos, Spain, founded the town of Victoria, Texas.
1825 Tenor Manuel García (born in Seville) performed in the Park Theater of New York, the Italian opera The Barber of Seville.
• The Louisiana Civil Code adopted the basic characteristics of the Spanish community of acquits and gains.
1826 The Universities of Harvard, Virginia and Bowdoin, started to offer Spanish courses.
1829 Miguel Antonio Otero was born in Valencia, New Mexico. He became a member of New Mexico's House of Representatives, attorney-general of the Territory of New Mexico, Democratic Congressional Representative, and acting governor of New Mexico.
1830 The Mexican government enacted the Colonization Law, which encouraged Anglo migration into Texas.
• The first Longhorns appeared, resulting from the crossbreeding of the Spanish Retinto and cattle brought by Anglo settlers.
• Composer, musician and opera singer, Gregorio Curto, arrived in New Orleans, where he led a very active life. He was the organist of several churches.
1831 Esteban Ochoa was born. He developed the first public school system in the Arizona territory.
• The Compañía Española de Teatro was the first Spanish-language theatre company in the South. Among its repertoire, it included plays by Spain's great Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio.
1831-1840 2,004 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1832 Fanny Kemble Butler directed in New York with great success the play La Estrella de Sevilla, by Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio.
1833 Twelve Franciscans arrived in California to work in the missions. It wasestimated that up to this year over 80,000 Indians had been baptized in the California missions and that 20,000 were still living in them and roducing 125,000 bushels of wheat and there were about 780,000 head of cattle.
1833-1834 Spanish merchant Luis Vásquez reached an understading with the Crow Indians.
1836 Texas declared its independence from Mexico.
• Historian William H. Prescott published his book Ferdinand and Isabella.
• Sephardim Jew Jacob de la Motta, became the first Hispanic pharmacist when he bought Apothecaries Hall, in Charleston.
1839 Poet, novelist and playwright, Thomas Cooper de León was born in Columbia, South Carolina.
• Texas adopted the first Homestead Law in the United States. The principle of protecting some personal property from creditors derived from Spanish medieval law.
1840 Texas adopted into law the Spanish legal principle that a person be sued in the area he resides.
• The principle of community property or property acquired during the marriage (bienes gananciales) was adopted by Texas. The principle derived from Spanish medieval law, going as far back as the Siete Partidas (XIII century). The right to file a joint income tax return derives from this principle.
• Texas adopted the Spanish legal principle of independent executor (Albacea) to probate matter (wills and testaments).
1841 Texas adopted many principles of Spanish family law, such as, legal protection of partners in common-law relationships, including the children of that relationship.
1841-1850 2,091 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1842 Francisco López discovered gold in Santa Feliciana Canyon, near Los Angeles.
• Henry Castro, a Sephardim Jew, entered into a five-year agreement with Sam Houston for the colonization of land west of San Antonio. From 1842 to 1847, he relocated more than five thousand immigrants. He received land grants that covered Medina County and parts of Frio, McMullen, Zavala, Uvalde, Béxar and Bandera Counties. He was the founder of the towns of Quihi, Vandenberg, and D'Hanis. The settlers of Castroville named the area after his name.
• The first railroad in Florida was built thanks to the efforts of David Yulee, a Sephardim Jew and a member of Congress.
1846 July 7. U.S. proclaimed the annexation of California after the surrender of Mexican troops in Monterrey.
1848 By the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexico ceded Texas, New Mexico and Alta California to the United States.
1849 Luis Vásquez set up as a merchant in Salt Lake City. In 1855, he sold his interest to the Mormons.
• George Ticknor published his History of Spanish Literature.
• Severn Teackle Wallis published in Baltimore his Glimpses of Spain, which he dedicated to the Spanish Vice-Consul José Antonio Pizarro.
1850 José Sadoc Alemany, a Catalonian, became bishop of Monterrey. He later became archbishop of San Francisco.
• Spanish Dominican Fr. Francisco Villarrasa founded a monastery in Monterey, California. Six Catalonians arrived there to star their novitiate. Twenty years later there would be twenty Dominicans working in California (Spaniards and Irish).
• Spanish Vasques arrived in California.
• Texas adopted the Spanish principle of adoption. Under this principle, adopted children have the same rights as biological children. In addition, they may also inherit property from their natural parents.
• Micaela Almonester, daughter and heiress of Andrés Almonester, and also popularly known as the Baronesa de Pontalba (she married Xavier Celestin Delfau de Pontalba), succeeded in completing the first apartment building in the United States in New Orleans.
1851 A group of Americans and Spaniards leave for Cuba, to annex it to the United States. The leader, Narciso López, was executed by Spanish authorities in Havana.
• Bishop José Alemany helped in the founding of a convent in Santa Catalina, Monterey, for the Sisters of the Most Holy Name of Jesus.
1851-1860 9,038 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1853 The United States acquired from Mexico the territories of southern Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million.
• Bishop José Sadoc Alemany was appointed archbishop of San Francisco. He built the cathedral and 150 churches. He contributed greatly to the spread of Catholicism in the city. When he arrived there were only 500 Catholics in the city. When he died there were 250,000.
• Fr. Félix Varela died in New York. Born in Cuba, Fr. Varela spent many years in the United States, especially in New York. He represented Cuba in the Spanish Cortes.
1856 Fr. Tadeo Amat, from Catalonia (Spain), was appointed bishop of Monterey, California.
1857 Lola Martínez, a Spanish artist born in Ireland, returned to the United States after a world-wide tour singing, dancing, giving conferences and writing books.
1859 Spanish immigrant José Francisco de Navarro built the first American iron steamship, The Matanzas.
• Bishop Tadeo Amat transferred his See to Los Angeles and started construction of the cathedral of Santa Vibiana.
1860 The last bullfight in California was held this year.
• Spanish Vasques arrived in Nevada to work as shepherds.
1861 Spain declared itself neutral in the U.S. Civil War. About 10,000 Hispanics participated in the War.
1861-1870 6,390 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1862 Manuel Antonio Cháves led a raid against Confederate forces (Battle of Glorieta Pass) which had invaded New Mexico. He was a descendant of one of the families who went to New Mexico with Juan de Oñate in the 1590's.
1864 The United States Congress awarded Spanish immigrant John Ortega a Medal of Honor for his actions aboard the USS Saratoga during the Civil War. Very little else is known about him, except that he was born in Spain in 1840 as Juan Ortega.
• Sephardim Jew David Camden DeLeón was appointed Surgeon General of the Confederate States.
1865 The official motto of Montana became "Oro y Plata."
1866 David G. Farragut, the son of Spanish immigrant Jorge Farragut, was elevated to the rank of admiral, the first person to have achieved that rank, in recognition of his service during the Civil War. It was he who coined the famous phrase "Damm the torpedoes, full speed ahead!!"
• Alexander Del Mar became director of the Bureau of Statistics.
1867 Admiral David G. Farragut arrived at Mahon, Menorca, where his father had been born, and was received with much pomp and fanfare, as a native son returning home. In the cathedral he read his father's baptismal record.
1870 Puerto Rico became a Spanish province with the right to send a delegate to the Cortes (Parliament).
• Spanish violinist Pablo Sarasate enjoyed great success in this country for twenty years.
1871 The governor of New Mexico destroyed the colonial archives.
• Julián Blanco and Manuel Cochado were elected as representatives of Puerto Rico to the Spanish Cortes.
1871-1880 5,266 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1873 The Spanish warship Toronado captured an American warship carrying supplies to Cuban rebels.
1876 José Jordana y Morera, a Spaniard, found near Laramie, Wyoming, the Spanish Trail which had been opened up by Spaniards traveling from California to the interior.
• At the International Exhibition in Philadelphia, a great homage was paid to Miguel de Cervantes. At the official toast general Hawley referred to Spain as "our sister country, our friend, whose flag was the first to fly on American soil."
1878 Angustias de la Guerra Ord dictated her recollection of the early history of California to Thomas Savage of the Bancroft Library. Ocurrencias en California was later translated into English and published in 1956 as Occurrences in Hispanic California. Her father was the commander of the Santa Barbara presidio. When her father married her mother, he had to ask for royal permission because she was of noble blood.
• José Francisco de Navarro built in New York the first elevated rail in the United States.
1880 Rudolf Matas, son of Dr. Narciso Hereu y Matas, a Spanish immigrant, graduated from medical school in Louisiana. In time he came to be one of the leading researchers on yellow fever.
1881-1890 4,419 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1883 Columbia College introduced what was then, the first course in Latin American history in the United States. It was taught by Daniel de León.
1884 Spanish opera singer María Barrientos was born in Barcelona. She came to the United States in 1916. Her debut was in the Metropolitan Opera House in New York.
• Spanish sculptor José de Creeft was born. He emigrated to the United States in 1929 and became a citizen in 1940. His works were shown in the most important art galleries and museums in the United States.
1885 Spanish-born Rafael Guastavino obtained the first of his twenty-five patents for a new mortar. Guastavino built tiled vaults, domes for many buildings in the U.S., and developed new techniques for tiled floors, cohesive masonry, etc. Among the many buildings Guastavino and his son worked on, are the domes for the Supreme Court building and the Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC. and the Ellis Island famous ceiling in New York.
1886 Spanish businessman Vicente Martínez Ybor established a tobacco factory in Tampa, Florida. Ybor City grew around the cigar factory.
1888 Spanish opera singer Lucrecia Bori, was born in Valencia, Spain. She performed for 15 years at the Metropolitan Opera House.
1891 The Centro Español was founded in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida. It included a theater where Spanish plays were performed. In 1912, a new building was constructed, with an even bigger theater.
1891-1900 6,662 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1894 Bishop Toribio Minguella was appointed bishop of San Juan, Puerto Rico. He was the last bishop of Spanish origin.
1898 The Spanish-American broke out after the explosion of the American battleship Maine at Havana harbor.
• By the Treaty of Paris, Spain, the defeated power, granted independence to Cuba and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philipinnes to the United States.
• Spanish artist Xavier González was born. He later came to the United States, exhibiting his works at very important museums and art galleries. He received an Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
• Fabiola Cabeza de Baca was born in New Mexico. Her family was descendant of the early Spanish settlers on that region. She became a civic leader, author and folklorist. She studied the old Spanish and Indian traditions of New Mexico. She was also a teacher in rural areas and worked among poor Hispanics and Indians.
1899 Spanish engineer Ricardo Galbis built a pelota court in St. Louis, though, it did not prosper.
• Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal was invited to the United States to lecture at Clark University. The world's leading authority in brain research, Ramón y Cajal left a very deep impression in this country.
1900 Famous music conductor, Xavier Cugat (Francisco de Asís Javier Cugat Mingall de Brue y Deulofeo), was born. He played in prominent hotels and clubs throughout the United States. He popularized rumba in the 1930's and 1940's.
1900-1913 8,089 Spanish workers arrived in Hawaii to work on the plantations.
1901 Pablo Casals, the famous cellist and composer, gave his first tour of the United States. He was considered one of this century's greatest concert performers.
• José Luis Girao was born in Almería, Spain. He was the son of José Girao and Isabel Mendoza. The family (with two children) emigrated to Chicago. The children soon became orphaned and Mr. Elias Disney adopted José Luis, who will later become the famous Walt Disney.
1901-1910 48,944 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1904 El Camino Real Association was founded in California to revive the road that linked the Spanish missions.
• Archer M. Huntington founded in New York the "Hispanic Society of America."
1905-1908 About 10,000 Spanish workers arrived for the building of the Panama Canal.
1908 Alfonso Ramón López was born. He was a prominent baseball player and manager.
1911 Luisa Capetillo wrote her famous work: "Mi opinión sobre las libertades, derechos y deberes de la mujer como compañera, madre y ser independiente" (My Opinion on the Freedom, Rights and Duties of the Woman as Companion, Mother and Independent Woman). She dedicated her life to women's rights and to workers' rights. She was born in Puerto Rico to a French mother and Spanish father.
1911-1920 102,954 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1912 Spanish opera singer, Lucrecia Bori, made her debut at the Metropilitan Opera, opposite Enrico Caruso. After she retired from performoing, she became the first woman to became a member of the Metropolitan's board of directors.
1913 Spaniard José Campubrí started publishing the newspaper La Prensa, for New York's Spanish-speaking community.
1914 José García Villa, a Philippine poet of Spanish descent, was born in Manila. He later emigrated to the United States, where he won many literary awards.
• The new building of the Centro Asturiano in Ybor City included a twelve-hundred seat theater. It is the only theater built by Hispanics that is still being used today as a theater. During the Depression Era, it housed a Hispanic Federal Theater Project.
1916 Spanish intellectual Federico de Onís arrived in New York. He would teach at Columbia University and would be the president of its Hispanic Institute.
• Spanish composer Enrique Granados opened in New York his opera Goyescas.
• Spanish inventor Leonardo Torres de Quevedo completed construction of the cable car system over Niagara Falls, with the aid of Spanish engineers and technicians and the considerable investment by the Niagara Spanish Aerocar Company. It was the longest and safest passenger cableway in the world and it is still in operation.
1917 500 Spanish Basques arrived in the United States.
1918 A wave of Spanish immigrants arrived in New Jersey. They settled mostly in Newark.
• Margarita Carmen Cansino was born. She would become the famous Hollywood actress and dancer known as Rita Hayworth. Her father, Eduardo Cansino, was born in Seville to a family with a long tradition of dancers. She was very popular in the 1930's and 1940's and starred with many Hollywood greats as Cary Grant, Tyrone Power and Fred Astaire.
1919 Spanish writer Vicente Blasco Ibáñez's novel The Shadow of the Cathedral, was published in the United States. American writer, William Dean Howells, said that it was one of the best novels in modern literature.
• The Teatro Español was founded in New York. It was housed in the former Park Theatre, which was leased to Spanish director and actor Manuel Noriega. He later founded the Gran Compañía de Opera y Zarzuela.
• Composer and songwriter María Grever gave her first New York performance. She was a very talented and prolific person with many famous songs to her credit. Many of the country's top performers sang her songs. She was born in Mexico as María de la Portilla to a Mexican mother and Spanish father. She wrote her first song when she was four years old.
1921-1930 41,954 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1924 Famed Spanish historian, Américo Castro, came to the United States. He taught at Princeton University from 1941 until his retirement in 1953.
• The jai-alai (Basque ball) began to be popular in Miami, Florida.
1925 Spanish poet Federico García Lorca arrived in New York. During his stay there he wrote the famous poem Poet in New York.
1926 The Jai-Alai court opened in Miami.
1927 Gregorio Martínez Sierra's play Canción de Cuna, enjoyed great success in New York. The same was in 1929 for his play El Reino de Dios.
1928 Spanish ophthalmologist Dr. Ramón Castroviejo arrived in New York. He became one of the top eye specialists in this country. He became a naturalized American citizen in 1936.
• Famous Spanish pianist, José Iturbi, made his debut in the United States. In his long career in this country, Iturbi was guest conductor of many orchestras, as well as, musical director. As a child-prodigy, José Iturbi gave his first piano concert at the age of 7.
• Flamenco dancer, José Greco, arrived in the United States, where he had a long career as a dancer.
1929 Boise, Idaho, started an annual festival to celebrate Basque heritage. Boise has the largest urban concentration of population of Vasque ancestry, outside Spain and France.
• Spanish virologist Francisco Durán-Reynals joined the Rockefeller Institute. His research both at the Institute and Yale University is considered critical for the understanding of viruses and their effects on humans. He was the first to advance the idea that some viruses can produce cancer.
1930 Philanthropist Archer M. Huntington established the Hispanic Foundation at the Library of Congress, in Washington, DC, to collect and preserve books and documents related to the Hispanic world.
1931-1940 4,945 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1932 Santiago Iglesias Pantín, born in La Coruña, Galicia, Spain, was elected Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico to the U.S. House of Representatives.
• The company of María Guerrero and Fernando Díaz de Mendoza enjoyed great success at the New York Theater, performing plays by Spanish authors, both classical and contemporary.
1933 The New Mexico State Department of Vocational Education launched a program to teach traditional arts and crafts and furniture making, emphasizing Spanish colonial furniture and ornamental designs.
1934 Fray Junípero Serra, who founded nine missions in California, was proclaimed an American citizen by an Act of Congress. His statue is in the Capitol building.
1935 Philisopher George Santayana (Jorge Agustín Nicolás de Santayana), born in Madrid, Spain, published The Last Puritan: A Memoir in the Form of a Novel. This was the first novel written by a U.S. Hispanic to be nominated for a Pulitzer. He is considered one of the leading philosophers of his period. He was the first Hispanic philosopher and writer to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard.
• Spanish biochemist Jordi Folch Pi arrived in the United States with a Rockfeller
fellowship. He had graduated from medical school in 1933 with top honors. He taught and did research at the University of Harvard and later became Director of Research of the McLean Hospital. His research has concentrated on the biochemestry of the brain and nervous system.
José Arcadia Limón, one of this century's best dancers and choreographers, made his first Broadway appearance. He led a very active artistic life and later on he formed his own dance company. His father was French-Spanish and his mother Indian-Spanish.
1936 Spanish Civil War began. Although the United States was neutral in that conflict, many Americans went there to fight on the side of the Republican government.
• Spanish poet Pedro Salinas, and one of the most prominent members of the Generation of '27, came to the United States. He taught Spanish literature at Wellesley and Johns Hopkins from 1940 until his death in 1951.
• Spanish virologist Jordi Casals joined the Rockefeller Institute. He later joined Yale University School of Medicine. He is considered a pioneer in the development of methods for detecting immunological responses to viral nfections and for determining antigenic similarities between groups of viruses.
• Neurophysiologist R. Lorente de Nó joined the Rockefeller Institute. His research concentrated on the organization of the cerebral cortex and the physiology of peripheral nerves.
1937 Spanish philanthropist Elías Ahuja established in Delaware "Good Samaritan, Inc.," to help Spanish students to study in the United States. He was born in Cádiz. He studies at MIT and began working for the DuPont Corporation, where he became one of its top executives.
• The city of Toledo, Ohio, celebrated its centennial. Germán Erausquin led the effort for the signing of a twin city agreement between Toledo, Ohio and Toledo Spain. Since then, both cities celebrate simultaneously the Day of the Two Toledos.
• Concert pianist Amparo Iturbi, younger sister of José Iturbi and a talented pianist like him, gave her first American concert in New York at Lewisohn Stadium in New York before an audience of 12,000. She performed all over the world. She also appeared with her brother and recorded albums together.
1938 Spanish film director Luis Buñuel became director of documentaries for the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
1939 Spanish architect and city planner José Luis Sert arrived in the United States. He was a major figure in the fields of architecture and city planning, teaching at Yale and Harvard. In 1953 he was appointed Dean of the Graduate School of Design at Harvard. He was the first Hispanic to serve as dean of a major architectural school.
• The first annual De Soto Week was held in Bradenton, Florida.
• Emilio González López arrived in New York. Although a specialist in penal law, he later taught Spanish literature at Hunter College and City University of New York.
1940 Spanish film director, Luis Buñuel, became supervisor of Spanish-language versions of films for MGM studios.
• Famous Spanish novelist Ramón Sender came to the United States. He taught at the University of New Mexico. He wrote more than 80 books. His first books recounted his experiences with the Spanish army in Africa and with pre-Civil War Spanish society. Later works were more philosophical.
• Anais Nin, and American writer of Spanish and French descent, returned to the United States after a long stay in Europe.
• Ernest Hemingway's La Quinta Columna (The Fifth Column), based on counterspionage in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War, premiered at the Alvin Theater in New York.
1941 Spanish painter Salvador Dalí arrived in the United States. He would remain in this country for many years.
1941-1949 3,287 Spaniards arrived in the U.S.
1942 Spanish neurophysiologist José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado was appointed professor of medicine at Yale University School of Medicine.
1943 Luis Flórez, the son of Spanish immigrants, received the Collier Trophy. He invented a synthetic system for the training of pilots, as well as, many other inventions in the field of aeronautics.
1945 Writer Isaac Goldemberg was born. His ancestry includes Spanish, Basque, Italian, English, Quechua and Russian Jew. He is one this country's most notable Hispanic writers who encourages other fellow Hispanic writers to use Spanish in their writtings.
• Dr. Santiago Grisolía arrived in the United States. He is considered one of the world's leading scientists on the metabalism of urea. He also studies enzymes. He was chairman of the Biochemestry at the University of Kansas.
1946 Juan Marichal arrived in the United States. Although a physicist, he earned a PhD in literature in the United States.
1947 Spanish artist Joan Miró came to the United States where he designed a mural for the Terrace Plaza Hotel in Cincinnati.
1948 Spanish musician Carlos Montoya came to the United States.
1949 Spanish writer José María Ferrater Mora came to the United States, later teaching at prominent American universities.
• Pensacola, Florida, held its first annual Fiesta of the Five Flags.
• Neurophysiologist José M. Rodríguez Delgado arrived in the United States. He was considered one of the top specialists on brain functions. He did research and taught at Yale University.
1949-1954 Imogene Coca (Imogene Fernández y Coca) starred as Sid Ceasar's partner in the TV show Your Show of Shows. She received an Emmy nomination for her performance.
1950 Congress approved a law allowing for the annual entry into country of 250 Spanish Basque immigrants to work as shepperds.
• Actor José Ferrer (José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintrón) won an Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac. He had a very long and productive movie career. He received three Oscar nominations. He was born in Puerto Rico of Spanish parents.
• Spanish sociologist and political scientist Juan José Linz Storch de Gracia arrived in the United States. He taught at Yale.
1951 Spanish immigrant Manuel Núñez was promoted to judge in New York, the first Hispanic to achieve such position in the history of the state to date. He later became a member of the state's Supreme Court.
• Spanish painter José Vela Zanetti finished a mural for the U.N. building in New York.
1952 Roberto Ruiz arrived in the United States. He was professor of Spanish literature at Wheaton College.
1953 The United States and Spain signed a military and economic agreement.
• Ballerina Lupe Serrano became the principal dancer for the American Ballet Theatre, the first Hispanic to have achieved that honor. She was born in Argentina of a Mexican mother and Spanish-Argentine father.
• Spanish doctor Francisco Grande Covián arrived at the University of Minnesota. He was considered one of the top scientists on the study of vitamins and diet. He was also considered one of the more famous physiologists in the world.Neuropathologist Dr. Josep Segarra arrived in the United States. He is considered to be a pioneer in the investigation of demential states due to thalamic lesions.
1954 The Spanish Institute, Inc. of New York was established by Beatriz Bermejo Moore and Lucrecia Bori.
• Julian De Cordova left in his will his castle to the city of Lincoln (Massachusetts), where the De Cordova Museum is now housed. De Cordova was the owner of the Union Glass Co. His titles included Count of Cabra and Marquis of Almodóvar. He was a descendant of the Gran Capitán (Great Captain) Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1453-1515).
• Dr. A. Giner-Sorolla joined the Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York. He is a leading researcher in experimental cancer chemotherapy and carcinogenesis.
1956 Poet Juan Ramón Jiménez won the Nobel Prize for Literature. An exile of the Spanish Civil War, Jiménez taught at the University of Maryland since 1947.
• Los Caballeros de Vargas Society was founded in New Mexico. It is composed of descendants of the soldiers that accompanied Governor Vargas in his reconquest of New Mexico after the Pueblo rebellion of 1680. They celebrate annually the conquest of Santa Fe by Vargas. This tradition began in 1712 by captain Juan Paez Hurtado and a group of Santa Fe citizens. As one of the members of the association said: "With all our heart and soul we have not ceased to feel that we are the sons of our motherland Spain." The descendants of the natives the Spaniards encountered and were Christianized still cling to the Spanish culture as taught to their ancestors. Donald Cutter said that the natives "live as Spaniards in spite of the fact that they do not have a drop of Spanish blood. They have the Spanish culture in their hearts, which is more important than blood."
• Physicist Manuel Cardona, the world's leading researcher on germanium and silicon, arrived to Harvard. He has received many honorary degrees and awards, such as, the 1984 Frank Isakson Prize from the American Physical Society.
1957 The first Cursillo de Cristiandad (Short Course in Christianity) was taught in Waco, Texas. It was brought to this country by two Spanish Air Force cadets training in Texas and by a Franciscan priest.
• The Casals Music Festival was founded in Puerto Rico in honor of Pablo Casals the greatest cellist of all time.
• Robert Laxalt published the critically acclaimed Sweet Promised Land about Basques' life in the United States. He is the son of a Basque shepperd who emigrated to the U.S.
• Doctor David Cardús arrived in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In 1960, he joined the Institute for Rehabilitation and Research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. He has been a consultant to the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1993 he was the president of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology. In 1970, he was the vice-chairman of the Gordon Conference on Biomathematics. In 1972, he received a gold medal from the International American Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
• Ballerina Lupe Serrano joined the American Ballet Theatre as principal dancer, which was the beginning of a long and very successful career until her retirement in 1971. Serrano and the ballet performed at the most prestigious theaters in the United States and abroad. One of the highlights of her career was an 11-week tour of the Soviet Union in 1961. In 1988, she joined the Washington, DC Ballet as an artistic associate. She was born to a Mexican mother of French descent and to a Spanish father.
• C. Villar-Palasí arrived in the United States. He later joined the University of Virginia School of Medicine as Professor of Pharmacology. His field of research concentrates mainly on glycogen metabolism and the mechanism of action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
1958 The Spanish embassy presented to the city of St. Augustine, a painting of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, by Spanish painter Alberto Duce.
1959 Dr. Severo Ochoa, one of the leading scientific minds of the century who has influenced many other scientists, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research on DNA and RNA. He came to the United States in 1941.
• President Eisenhower presented Joan Miró with a $10,000 Guggenheim International Art Award.
1960 Eydie Gormé won a Grammy with her husband Steve Lawrence, for their record We Got Us. Gormé is a Sephardim Jew and she sings in both English and Spanish (Medieval Spanish). She is very popular in the United States and in Spanish-speaking countries. In many of her recordings in Spanish she is accompanied by the famous trio Los Panchos.
• Celedonio Romero, a Spanish classical guitarrist, formed with his three sons, the first classical guitar quartet to perform with major symphony orchestras in the United States. King Juan Carlos I of Spain awarded him with the medal of the Order of Queen Isabella. In 1991, the Pope made Romero a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre.
1961 The Archdiocese of New York established St. Joseph's Center as the headquarters of the Cursillo de Cristiandad Movement.
• President John F. Kennedy appointed José Teodoro Moscoso Mora Rodríguez to head the Alliance for Progress. Moscoso was born in Barcelona, Spain.
• Jerry García and his band The Grateful Dead realeased their first album. Jerry García was the son of a Spanish immigrant.
• Spanish writer and literary critic Juan Luis Alborg arrived in the United States. He had been awarded the National Prize for Literature in 1959. He was the author of a history of Spanish literature.
• Ramón J. Sender published in New York Exemplary Novels from Cibola.
1962 Actor Emilio Estévez was born. He has a prominent Hollywood career and has starred in many films.
• The Spanish Ambassador, Antonio Garrigues, presented a parchment in which the city of Avilés, Spain, declared St. Augustine to be its twin.
• The town of Victoria, Texas, restored the original name given to its main street by the town's founder Martín de León, "Calle de los Diez Amigos."
• Geneticist Francisco J. Ayala received a PhD from Columbia University. He is now Professor in the Department of Genetics at the University of California at Davis. His interest is also in the humanistic and ethical implications of biology and has written extensively on the subject.
1963 José Yglesias wrote A Wake in Ybor City, about life in the Cuban Spanish community in Tampa, Florida. He has written columns for some of this countrry's leading magazines and books many books about the Hispanic community. His was born in Ybor City of a Cuban mother and a Galician father.
• St. Augustine celebrated its 450th anniversary, amid great pomp and ceremony, with the presence of the Spanish ambassador and the Vice-President, Lyndon B. Johnson.
• Spanish philologist Gonzalo Sobejano began teaching at Columbia University. He is the author of many books and articles on Spanish literature.
1964 Floyd Salas was awarded the San Francisco Foundation's Joseph Henry Jackson Fiction Award. He can trace his ancestry on his mother's side to the Spanish settlers that accompanied Juan de Oñate to New Mexico in late XVI century, and on his father's to the XVII century in Florida. He had a short boxing career, both as a boxer and a coach, but later turn to teaching and writing. In 1967, he published Tattoo the Wicked Cross, which made him famous. He wrote other works in prose and poetry.
• Spanish actor José Crespo and his company performed in New York with a measure of success, La vida es sueño (Life is a Dream) of Pedro Calderón de la Barca, in both Spanish and English translation.
• The Spanish government donated to the OAS a bust of Fr. Francisco de Vitoria, the father of International Law, by Victorio Macho.
• Spanish writer Miguel Delibes was visiting professor at the University of Maryland.
1965 Spanish tennis star, Manuel Santana, won the U.S.L.T.A. National Tennis Championship. He is considered by many to be one of the best tennis players of all time.
• Soprano Martina Arroyo starred in Verdi's Aida at the Metropolitan Opera. Her performance won praise from many critics and she has later performed at the most prestigious opera houses in the world.
• Both postal services of Spain and the United States issued a commemorative stamp of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés.
• Spanish philologist Juan Cano Ballesta arrived at the University of Kansas.
1966 Ronald Reagan took his oath as governor of California on the bible used by Fray Junípero Serra.
• Truman Capote published his famous novel In Cold Blood.
• Eydie Gormé won another Grammy with her song If You Walked Into My Life.
• Tenor Plácido Domingo was catapulted into fame for his opening at the Lincoln Center. His first appearance on the stage was in 1961 in the city of Monterrey, Mexico. He is considered to be one of the greatest opera singers of all time, along with Luciano Pavarotti and fellow Spaniard José Carreras, comparable only to Enrico Caruso. He has performed all over the world performing the greatest operas. He is currently the Washington Opera Director.
• The famous Spanish flamenco guitarrist José Montoya composed the first flamenco music concerto. The debut was with the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra.
• Spanish music teacher Julio Esteban became the President of the Association of Pianists of the United States. He was one of the most famous teachers at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore.
• The Spanish government donated to the OAS an statue of Queen Isabella, by José Luis Sánchez.
• A statue of Columbus was erected at Union Station, in Washington, DC.
• An Institute of Hispanic Culture was founded in Houston, Texas. In 1972, it became associated with the Instituto de Cultura Hispánica, in Madrid.
1967 A group of descendants of Spanish and Mexicans rose up in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico, and took over the county courthouse. They claimed twenty-five hundred square miles of land that, according to them, the Crown of Spain had granted to their ancestors but that were later taken away by Anglo colonists.
• Juan Oró, a Spanish scientist living the United States, was appointed as NASA's head of lunar sample analysis. As a leading scientist of molecular biology in space and time, Dr. Oró has demonstrated prebiotic synthesis of the main basic components of nucleic acids from simple substances. His preoccupation has been with the origin of life on Earth.
• Actor Antonio Moreno died. He was born in Madrid in 1887 and his full name was Antonio Garrido Monteagudo y Moreno. He came to the United States when he was 14. He was one of the greatest of the Hispanic romantic stars in Hollywood in the 1920's. His career spanned from the early days of Hollywood to the 1950's.
• Actor Martin Sheen starred in his first film The Incident. Sheen was born in Dayton, Ohio. His father was a Spaniard from Galicia. He has been in many feature films and TV movies and very outspoken on social issues. He is the father of Charlie Sheen and Emilio Estévez, who is using the family name.
• Raquel Welch (Raquel Tejada) achieved stardom starring in the movie One Million Years B.C., She was born in Chicago to an American mother and a Bolivian immigrant of Spanish descent.
• The Chicago Civic Center was inaugurated. It has two sculptures by Spanish greats Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró.
1968 Scientist Luis W. Alvarez was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his research on subatomic particles. He also developed a ground-controlled radar system for landing aircraft, which was adopted by the U.S. Air Force in 1945. He also received the Collier Trophy, the Scott Medal and the National Medal of Science.
• Sculptor Enrique Monjó sculpted the high-relief United States--Twentieth Century for the First National Bank skyscraper in New York.
• The Spanish government donated to Dade County, Florida, a sculpture by M. Martí, on the Discovery of America.
1969 Actor Gilbert Roland was awarded the League of United Latin American Citizens Entertaiment Favorite Award. During this same year he received commendations from the California state legislature and the city of Los Angeles. He was born in Mexico of Spanish immigrants. He led a very active Hollywood career for 60 years.
• The Teatro Reportorio Español was founded in New York. It specialized in the performance plays from the Spanish Golden Age.
• The Spanish pavilion from the New York World Fair was reinaugurated at St. Louis as a gift from Spain. One of the foundation stones is from the tomb of Queen Isabella. The opening was attended by the Spanish Minister of Information, Manuel Fraga Iribarne.
• The day Apollo 11 landed on the moon, Houston and Huelva became twin cities.
1970 The Spain and Texas Society was founded.
• Dr. Roberto Segura came to the University of Kansas and later joined Cornell Medical College. His field of research is in neuropharmacology.
1971 Wild mustangs, horses which are descendants of those brought by the Spanish in the XVI century, came under the protection of federal law.
1972 Spanish cellist Pablo Casals (Carlos Salvador Defillo de Casals), a long resident in the United States, gave a premiere performance of his "Hymn to the United Nations" and received the Peace Medal from the U.N.
• Dr. Félix Martí-Ibáñez, a well-known psychiatrist, died. He was the founder of MD Publications, Inc.
• Frank Lorenzo took over Texas International Airlines and made it into the most important carrier airline in the country. Possesing an acute sense for business, Lorenzo became one the country's most influential airline executives. In 1980 he founded the first non-union airline, New York Air, acquiring the reputation of an union buster. One of the first things he did after taking over Continental Airlines was to go after the unions. In 1986 Continental tripled in size and he also bought control of Eastern Airlines. Lorenzo is the son of Spanish immigrants.
1973 In memory of the period when Spain governed Louisiana, the Spanish government donated one million dollars for the construction of a Spanish-style plaza in New Orleans.
• Dade County, Florida, declared itself bilingual.
• The mayor of Miami proclaimed the first Spanish Week.
1974 Paul Laxalt was elected U.S. Senator from Nevada. He is the son of a Basque immigrant.
• Thanks to the efforts of TOMFRA (The Texas Old Missions and Forts Restoration Association), the home of Columbus in Valladolid (now a museum) has flown the United States flag and has a coffer containing earth from the Spanish missions of Texas. TOMFRA plans to rebuild many of those missions.
• The Institute of Hispanic Culture was founded in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
1975 A memorial statue of Minorcan pioneers was erected in the cathedral's square in St. Augustine.
• Texas students visited the birthplace of Queen Isabella, Madrigal de las Altas Torres.
• The California Supreme Court overturned a lower court decision over water rights in Los Angeles, based on the rights granted by the Spanish Crown in the XVIII century.
• Spanish tennis star, Manuel Orantes, won the U.S. Open.
1976 During their visit to the United States, King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sophia of Spain, dedicated an statue of Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish governor of Louisiana, a leading figure in the revolutionary war. The statue is in front of the State Department, in Washington, DC.
• The city of New Orleans unveiled a statue of Bernardo de Gálvez, by sculptor Juan de Avalos. September 21 has been declared Bernardo de Gálvez Day by the governor of Louisiana.
• The Order of Gálvez's Grenadiers and Ladies was founded in Texas, for the purpose of highlighting not only Gálvez, but also the periods of American history to which Spain has contributed. The government of Spain donated uniforms similar to those worn by Galvez and his troops during the War of Independence and are now worn on special occasions. There are chapters of Grenadiers in San Antonio, El Paso, Galveston and Houston. The Ladies of the Order wear medals similar to the Spanish Order of Civil Merit. Under the Order's statutes, Grenadiers must pay a three-yearly visit to the King of Spain.
• Remedios Diaz-Oliver founded American International Container, a supplier of glass and plastic bottles. It later became one of Florida's top companies. Remedios emigrated from Cuba in 1961. She is the daughter of a Galician.
1977 Spanish priest Rev. Francisco Garmendia, was appointed by Pope Paul VI as Auxiliari Bishop of the New York Archidiocese.
• Poet Jorge Guillén, living in the United States since the Spanish Civil War and another great poet of the Generation of '27, was awarded the Cervantes Award, the most prestigious award in the Spanish language. He was professor of Spanish literature for many years at Wellesley College.
• A statue of Ponce de León was unveiled at a city park in Miami. It was the work of Enrique Monjo.
• Casa de España was founded in Baltimore, Maryland, by Spanish immigrants.
1978 Joseph Montoya, a descendant of those Spanish who had settled in New Mexico, was elected to Congress.
• Ricardo Montalbán won an Emmy for the TV miniseries How the West Was Won. In the same year he starred in the TV series Fantasy Island. He was born in Mexico of Spanish parents.
1979 Spanish-Cuban Néstor Almendros received to Academy Award nominations as director of photography for the films Kramer vs. Kramer and The Blue Lagoon.
• Martin Sheen starred in one of the most important movies of his film career, Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now.
1980 Census figures indicated that there were 73,735 immigrants born in Spain. About 12,000 of which came after 1975.
• The Royal Order of the Ponce de León Conquistadors was founded in Florida. It sponsors many activities in the month of February, including a reenactment of Ponce de León's landing.
• Pro-golfer Severiano Ballesteros won the Masters Open in Augusta, Georgia.
1981 "Guernica", the famous painting by the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, was transferred from the Museum of Modern Art in New York and returned to Spain, thereby fulfilling the painter's wish that it be returned to a democratic Spain.
1982 Rachel McLish (Rachel Livia Elizondo McLish) won the Ms. Olympia body building competion and the World Championship. Her father was of Spanish ancestry.
• President Ronald Reagan appointed Rita DiMartino as the first Hispanic representative to UNICEF. In 1988, President Reagan appointed her vice chairperson of the New York State Republican Committee. In 1992, President George Bush appointed her to the World Board of Governors of the United Services Organizations. She also had been the head of AT&T's International Public Affairs Department. She says she is not a tipical Hispanic because she is Republican and Protestant. Her father, Juan Dendariena, was a Spanish immigrant.
1984 President Ronald Reagan unveiled in Baltimore a monument to Columbus.
1985 President Ronald Reagan appointed Linda Chávez as Director of the White House Office of Public Liaison, becoming the highest-ranking woman in the Reagan administration. She was born in New Mexico and is a descendant of Spanish pioners. Her family lived in New Mexico for three centuries.
• Spanish director José Tamayo directed at the Madison Square Garden in New York an "Anthology of Zarzuela", (Zarzuela is an Spanish operette) which included performances by Plácido Domingo. It was considered a big hit.
• Miami held a tribute to the Spanish Jew philosopher Maimonides on the 850th anniversary of his birth. It was attended by many personalities, including Congressman Alberto Gutman, a Sephardim Jew of Cuban origin.
• A group of Spaniards make Cadiz a sister city to Baltimore. The Mayors of both cities meet in Baltimore to seal the brotherhood.
1986 Roberto Martínez was elected Governor of Florida. He is the first Hispanic to hold that office since Florida became a part of the United States. He is a third-generation Spanish-American (He is the grandson of an Asturian). In 1986, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to the White House Conference on a Drug-Free America and in 1991, President George Bush, appointed him director of the Office for National Drug Control Policy.
• The Second International Basque Conference was held in Santa Barbara, California.
• The city of Goliad, Texas, celebrated its first annual recreation of the Spanish presidio and how it helped American colonists gain independence.
• Marion Seabury, José Iturbi's secretary, founded in Beverly Hills the Iturbi Foundation (in memory and Amparo and José Iturbi concert pianists) to help young artists to make it as professionals.
• Coloquio magazine is founded in Baltimore by Spaniards with the original name of La Tertulia. It became an Internet magazine in the early years of the Internet and is now being read by over 100,000 persons per month.
1987 Spanish writer and Nobel-Prize winner, Camilo José Cela, who wrote the novel Cristo versus Arizona, was made an honorary citizen of Tucson.
• Angeles Alvariño de Leiva achieved the status of Emeritus Scientist at the National Marine Fisheries, La Jolla, California. As a renowned marine biologist, Dr. Alvariño discovered 22 new species. She was born in 1916 at El Ferrol (Galicia, Spain) and graduated with top honors from the University of Santiago de Compostela in 1933, when she was just 17 years old. She came to the United States in 1958.
• The Plaza de la Evangelización was opened in downtown Miami, as a tribute to the Spanish missionary efforts.
• The Count of Gálvez Historical Society was founded in Miami to highlight the country's Hispanic past.
• The Hispanic Cultural Association is founded in Baltimore. The group begun celebrating Queen Isabella Day every year in April to commemorate the Queen's birth.
1988 Pope John Paul II beatified Fray Junípero Serra.
• The National Congress of American Sephardic Jews was held in Miami.
• Pedro Almodóvar's film Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) received an Oscar nomination as the best foreign film.
• Spanish tenor José Carreras established the José Carreras International Foundation Against Leukemia, after that disease threatened his life and his career. He spends most of his time in the United States.
1989 The governor of Kansas proclaimed April 22 Queen Isabella's Day.
• The University of Nebraska held the symposium "The Hispanic Presence on the Great Plains."
1990 U.S. census figures indicated that there were 444,896 persons of Spanish origin. Of those, 39,254 entered before 1980 and 29,568 entered between 1980 and 1990. Of the total number of those who reported Spanish origin, 28,189 (41%) are naturalized U.S. citizens. 40,633 (59%) are not U.S. citizens. Census figures indicated that California was the state with the highest number of Spaniards (142,302), followed by New Mexico (48,193), Florida (39,576), Texas (39,194), New York (37,984), New Jersey (19,849).
1991 Wendy Lucero-Schayes was voted U.S. Female Diving Athlete of the Year. Her father is the son of Spanish immigrants. An illness kept her from competing in the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. According to her, it was a great disappointment because she could not travel to the country of her ancestors. She now has a career as a TV broadcaster.
• Spain created the Instituto Cervantes, named after the great XVII century Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, with the expressed purpose of spreading Spanish and Latin American cultures.
• Spanish American writer Elena Castedo published her first novel Paradise, which was nominated for the National Book Award. She was born in Barcelona and emigrated to Chile and from there she came to the U.S.
1992 Tennis star Mary Joe Fernández won the Gold Medal for the United States in women's doubles. She was born in the Dominican Republic. Her mother was Cuban and her father a Spanish-born employee of an investment firm. Soon after her birth, the family moved to Miami. At age 13 Mary Joe was the youngest player ever to participate in a professional tournament in 1984.
• Spanish actor Antonio Banderas arrived in Hollywood to make his first appearance in an American film opposite Armand Assante in The Mambo Kings.
• José Ignacio López de Arriortua became GM's vice president for purchasing and became a key element in GM's positive turnaround. With a very strong personality he also created enemies and was nicknamed "Torquemada" or "The Grand Inquisitor".
• Goya Foods became the largest Hispanic-owned bussines in the United States. The company was founded in 1936 by Prudencio Unanue Ortiz, a Spanish immigrant.
1993 Singer Julio Iglesias earned $15 million worldwide from his records. He is the most popular and most successful singer in history having 350 platinum albums and 950 gold ones. He has sold over 120 million albums worldwide and in many languages. He has made Miami his residence.
• Spanish actor Antonio Banderas got his first American lead in the film Desperado.
• The Instituto Cervantes opened a center in New York.
1994 Actor Charlie Sheen added his handprints on Hollywood's Walk of Fame. He is the brother of Emilio Estévez and the son of Martin Sheen. Martin Sheen is the son of a Galician.
• Spanish tenors Plácido Domingo and José Carreras, together with Luciano Pavarotti began a series of concerts "The Three Tenors."
1995 Arthur C. Martínez became Chairman and CEO of Sears, one the nation's largest merchandisers. Martínez ancestors emigrated to New Orleans from Spain.
• "La Macarena" a song and dance performed by the Spanish flamenco duo Los del Río, became a mega hit in the United States.
1996 Spanish-born architect Rafael Moneo was the first Hispanic to be awarded the major international Pritziker Architecture Prize.
• Spanish writer and Nobel Prize Winner, Camilo José Cela, founded in Miami the Centro Cultural Español de Cooperación Iberoamericana. Sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Spain, its main objective is to spread Spanish and Latin American cultures in the United States and highlight their presence in this country.
• The Instituto Cervantes opened a center in Chicago.
1998 The United States Senate held celebrations commemorating the 20th anniversary of Spanish democracy. Senator Bob Graham presented former Spanish Prime Minister, Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, with a rubbing of the inscription of a monument to the 1812 Spanish Constitution in the Plaza de la Constitución, in St. Augustine, Florida. Many personalities were present aside from Sen. Graham, including Sen. Paul Sarbanes, Sen. Orrin Hatch, the Spanish Ambassador, Antonio de Oyarzábal, the U.S. Ambassador to Spain, Edward Romero, former congressman John Brademas, Plácido Domingo, etc.
• Spanish actor Antonio Banderas starred in The Mask of Zorro, considered a great sucess in the summer of that year.
• The Macarena was proclaimed the most popular foreign song in the United States in the last forty years.
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